*Students should refer to their Course Outline/Syllabus and talk to their instructor because courses will differ in terms of what uses are permitted or not permitted, as well as how to acknowledge AI tools. Please note these initial guidelines may change.
General template for citing data resources:
Dataset with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI):
Dataset without a DOI:
Data table or custom tabulation:
*If the publisher/distributor is the same as the author, omit the publisher information from the reference entry to avoid duplication.
Graphic representation of data:
*Include "n.d." for "no date" rather than a date of publication and a retrieval date as shown if information provided by the source changes over time and the source does not provide stable URLs or permanent links to previous versions.
*General guidelines for specialized data and original content only available from select discipline-specific library databases (examples: Industry Reports from IBISWorld; Nursing Care Plans from Lippincott Advisor):
Example with an author:
Example with no author listed (use database name as author and omit from the end):
*Include "Retrieved" followed by date accessed for sources that are updated over time.
Example with no date listed, but source likely to change over time:
*Include "n.d." for "no date" rather than a date of publication and a retrieval date as shown if information provided by the source is likely to change over time (not required if source links back to previous archived versions):
Physical copy or from a subscription service:
*The director should be credited as the author. If unknown, list other(s) in a prominent role (e.g., writer, producer).
*Include a catalogue or report number in parentheses, if given.
*If the author and publisher are the same, omit the publisher prior to the link to avoid duplication.
General guidelines for including images from a published source:
Public domain images:
*The image below is in the public domain meaning there are no restrictions on how the image can be used. If publication year is not available, add n.d. for no date.
Creative commons licensed images:
*The image of an infographic below was posted online with a Creative Commons license. The "CC BY" means that the image can be shared and adapted as long as the original creator is credited.
*If you have spoken with an Indigenous Elder or Knowledge Keeper, provide an in-text citation with as much detail as possible to describe and contextualize the information you are citing, including their full name, nation or Indigenous group, location and any other relevant information followed by "personal communication" and the date or date range when the correspondence took place:
*Because this information is not retrievable, APA does not require that it be included in the reference list. However, MacEwan University Library recommends that Elders and Knowledge Keepers be cited in-text and in the reference list. The following citation style was developed by NorQuest College Library in the spirit of wahkôhtowin and reconciliation and was adapted under a CC BY-NC license.
Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol. If you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.
For more examples: Refer to the Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation (call number: KE 259 .C36 2010), also called the "McGill Guide."
Legislation and statutes:
Legal materials in Martin's Annual Criminal Code:
Noninteractive Maps (like an image or PDF document)
Interactive Maps (maps that you can enter search terms into to see different results)
In square brackets and in place of a title, describe the search or interaction used to produce the map. If the site you are using produces a unique URL address for that interaction (like a Google Maps search), use that URL address in your references entry. Your reader will be able to access the same version of the map by following the link.
If the map does not produce a unique URL address for that interaction, your reader will not be able to access the same version of the map by following your link, so it is best to take a screenshot image of the map and include it as an appendix as well.
*If the author and publisher are the same, omit the publisher from the end to avoid duplication.
*Include the following:
Facebook example (learn more):
Instagram example (learn more):
Twitter example (learn more):
TikTok example (learn more):
Cover version of a song:
*Include the name of the account owner, if given, followed by the username in square brackets:
*If no person’s name is given, only include the account or screen name:
*General guidelines if including a table or graph from a published source:
Visit the APA Style Blog to learn more about formatting and citing tables and graphs.
*There is no need to identify where or how the show was viewed be it Netflix, a DVD, or elsewhere.
*Since Wikipedia content changes frequently, cite the archived version of the page you have accessed. To do so, select "View History" from the article page and select the link for the version you have accessed noting its date for the reference entry.
Original work in a museum:
Image of an original work from a museum website:
Image of an original work from a library database (e.g., ARTstor):