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APA Citation Guide (7th Ed.)


Everything Else

Blog Posts


In-text: (Cournoyer, 2019, para. 3).
Reference entry:

Cournoyer, D. (2019, April 4). This is sad. Alberta’s leaders’ debate remarkable for being horribly boring. - Alberta Politics.


Case Studies


*Include a case identification number, if provided.

In-text: (Goode & Mark, 2019, p. 4).
Reference entry:

Goode, M.R. & Mark, K. (2019). Mixtape social: Building brands for athletes and companies (9B19A012). Ivey Publishing.


Data & Statistics

General template for citing data resources:

In-text: (Author, Year, page/section/figure/table number if available).
Reference entry:

Author. (Year). Title of dataset/document (ID number if provided) [Description of form]. Publisher or Source. DOI or retrieved from URL if freely available online


Dataset with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

In-text: (Gurr, 2006)
Reference entry:

Gurr, T. R. (2006). Polity II: Political structures and regime change, 1800-1986 (ICPSR 9263, Version V1) [Data set and code book]. ICPSR.


Dataset without a DOI:

In-text: (Statistics Canada, 2011).

Reference entry:
Statistics Canada. (2011). Canadian Community Health Survey, 2010: Annual component [Public use microdata file and code book]. Odesi. 


Data table or custom tabulation:

*If the publisher/distributor is the same as the author, omit the publisher information from the reference entry to avoid duplication.

In-text: (Statistics Canada, 2017).
Reference entry:

Statistics Canada. (2017). Volatile organic compound levels measured in household air (13-10-0105-01) [Table].


Graphic representation of data:
*Include "n.d." for "no date" rather than a date of publication and a retrieval date as shown if information provided by the source changes over time and the source does not provide stable URLs or permanent links to previous versions.

In-text: (Edmonton Police Service, 2019, "Allendale, break and enter" section).
Reference entry:

Edmonton Police Service. (n.d.). Edmonton community safety map - Allendale, break and enter, last 60 days [Interactive map]. Retrieved on May 23, 2019, from


Data dashboard:

In-text: (City of Edmonton, 2016, Westwood - Housing Information section).
Reference entry:

City of Edmonton. (2016). 2016 federal census neighborhood profiles [Tableau dashboard].

Discipline-Specific Database Content


*General guidelines for specialized data and original content only available from select discipline-specific library databases (examples: Industry Reports from IBISWorld; Nursing Care Plans from Lippincott Advisor):

  • If there is no person or group/organization author listed, use the corporate name of the database instead.
  • Include a format description following the title for less common content types, e.g. [Company profile] [Industry profile] [SWOT report] [Patient care sheet].
  • Include the name of the database in italics in the source position, following title [description]. Omit this if the database name has also been used as the author to avoid duplication. 
  • Include the URL for the homepage of the database website. Locate the public database website with an internet search. Do not use the Library's subscription link.

Example with an author:

In-text: (Couillard, L., 2019, para. 2).
Reference entry:

Couillard, L. (2019, October). Breweries in Canada [Industry report]. IBISWorld.



Example with no author listed (use database name as author and omit from the end):

*Include "Retrieved" followed by date accessed for sources that are updated over time.

In-text: (Lippincott Procedures, 2019, Documentation section).
Reference entry:

Lippincott Procedures. (2019, August 15). Delegating Care. Retrieved June 18, 2020, from



Example with no date listed, but source likely to change over time:

*Include "n.d." for "no date" rather than a date of publication and a retrieval date as shown if information provided by the source is likely to change over time (not required if source links back to previous archived versions):

In-text: (Marketline, n.d., Company Statement section, para. 3).
Reference entry:

Marketline. (n.d.). Lululemon Athletica Inc. [Company profile]. Retrieved June 9, 2020, from





Physical copy or from a subscription service: 

*The director should be credited as the author. If unknown, list other(s) in a prominent role (e.g., writer, producer). 

In-text: (Polley, 2012, 1:02:34).
Reference entry:

​Polley, S. (Director). (2012). Stories we tell [Film]. Mongrel Media. 


Free online:

In-text: (Polley, 2012, 1:02:34).
Reference entry:

Polley, S. (Director). (2012). Stories we tell [Film]. Mongrel Media.


Government Reports


*Include a catalogue or report number in parentheses, if given.

​​In-text: (O’Donnell et al., 2017, p. 8).
Reference entry:

O’Donnell, V., Wendt, M, & the National Association of Friendship Centres. (2017, March 21). Aboriginal seniors in population centres in Canada (Catalogue No 89-653-X). Statistics Canada.


*If the author and publisher are the same, omit the publisher prior to the link to avoid duplication.

​​In-text: (Department of Justice, 2019, p. 9).
Reference entry:

Department of Justice. (2019, August 26). Final report on the review of Canada’s criminal justice system.



General guidelines for including images from a published source:

  • In APA, any illustration that is not a table is considered a "figure." If it is necessary to include images in your paper, give each a figure number in bold, and number these sequentially in your paper.
    • Be sure to refer to the figure in the text of your paper e.g., (see Figure 1).
  • Below the figure number, provide a title describing the image in italics.
  • Add a note underneath the image that starts with "Note." in italics. Notes should describe the image's contents if helpful to a reader to interpret the information provided, and include a copyright attribution if reprinted or adapted from a published source.
  • Include a reference entry for the source of the image at the end of your paper.

Public domain images:
The image below is in the public domain meaning there are no restrictions on how the image can be used. If publication year is not available, add n.d. for no date.

Figure 1

2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)

Note. From Public Domain, by G. Altmann, n.d. ( In the public domain.
Reference entry:

Altmann, G. (n.d.). Covid-19 [Photograph]. Public Domain


Creative commons licensed images:
The image of an infographic below was posted online with a Creative Commons license. The "CC BY" means that the image can be shared and adapted as long as the original creator is credited. 

Figure 2

Infographic Depicting the Threats to the Climate Posed by Plastic 
infographic example
Note. From Flickr, by Plastic Atlas, 2019 ( CC BY.
Reference entry:

Plastic Atlis. (2019). The threat to the world's climate posed by plastic [Infographic]. Flickr.


Knowledge Keepers & Indigenous Elders


*If you have spoken with an Indigenous Elder or Knowledge Keeper, provide an in-text citation with as much detail as possible to describe and contextualize the information you are citing, including their full name, nation or Indigenous group, location and any other relevant information followed by "personal communication" and the date or date range when the correspondence took place:

In-text citation: (Walter Cardinal, Goodfish Lake Cree Nation, Treaty 6, lives in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, personal communication, June 5 2020).


*Because this information is not retrievable, APA does not require that it be included in the reference list. However, MacEwan University Library recommends that Elders and Knowledge Keepers be cited in-text and in the reference list. The following citation style was developed by NorQuest College Library in the spirit of wahkôhtowin and reconciliation and was adapted under a CC BY-NC license.

Template to follow: 

Last name, First initial., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory, if applicable. Where they live, if applicable. Topic/subject of communication, if applicable [Personal communication]. Date.

Reference entry:

Cardinal, W., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching [Personal communication]. June 5, 2020.

Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol. If you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.


Legal Materials


For more examples: Refer to the Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation (call number: KE 259 .C36 2010), also called the "McGill Guide."

Legislation and statutes:

*General Guidelines

  • If the title is long, shorten it for the in-text citation.
  • Only include page or section numbers if your instructor requests them.
  • Providing a URL is optional. 
In-text: (Canada Labour Code, 1985, s. 24). 
Reference entry:

Canada Labour Code, RSC 1985, c. L-2.



*General guidelines:

  • Only include page or section numbers if your instructor requests them.
  • Providing a URL is optional. 
In-text: (MacDonald v. Canada, 2020, s. 17). 
Reference entry:

MacDonald v. Canada, 2020 SCC 6.



*General guidelines:

  • Because bills are in-progress, including an access date can help the reader determine the stage at which you viewed the document.
  • If the title is long, shorten it for the in-text citation.
  • Only include page or section numbers if your instructor requests them.
  • Providing a URL is optional. 
In-text: (Bill C-77, 2019, s. 3). 
Reference entry:

Bill C-77: An Act to amend the National Defense Act and to make related and consequential amendments to other Acts. 42nd Parliament, 1st Session, December 3, 2015-Present. Retrieved from the Parliament of Canada, LEGISinfo website on April 9, 2019:


Legal materials in Martin's Annual Criminal Code:

In-text: (Canada Evidence Act, 1985, s. 37.3).
Reference entry:

Canada Evidence Act. (1985). In Martin's Annual Criminal Code 2019 (Student ed., pp. 1819-1893). Thomson Reuters.


Noninteractive Maps (like an image or PDF document) 

In-text: (Indigenous Services Canada, 2020).
Reference entry:

Indigenous Services Canada. (2022, June). First Nations in Alberta [Map]. Government of Canada.



Interactive Maps (maps that you can enter search terms into to see different results)

In square brackets and in place of a title, describe the search or interaction used to produce the map. If the site you are using produces a unique URL address for that interaction (like a Google Maps search), use that URL address in your references entry. Your reader will be able to access the same version of the map by following the link. 

In-text: (Google, 2020).
Reference entry:

Google. (n.d.). [Google Maps search of Sikh Gurdwara locations in Edmonton, Alberta]. Retrieved November 6, 2020, from,-113.4395393,13z/data=!3m1!4b1



If the map does not produce a unique URL address for that interaction, your reader will not be able to access the same version of the map by following your link, so it is best to take a screenshot image of the map and include it as an appendix as well. 

In-text: (Edmonton Police Services, 2009).
Reference entry:

Edmonton Police Service. (2009). [Edmonton community safety map search for assaults and break and enter crimes conducted in the Richfield neighbourhood within the last 30 days]. Retrieved November 6, 2020 from



Mobile Apps


In-text: (Levitt, n.d., 2:19).
Reference entry:

Levitt, T. (n.d.). 7 days of sleep [Mobile app]., Inc.


Generative AI 


*Students should refer to their Course Outline/Syllabus and talk to their instructor because courses will differ in terms of what uses are permitted or not permitted, as well as how to acknowledge AI tools. Please note these initial guidelines may change.

*This example is ChatGPT specific. Please note that there are several different Generative AI models.

In-text: (OpenAI, 2023).
Reference entry:

OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].




*If the author and publisher are the same, omit the publisher from the end to avoid duplication.

In-text: (Heart and Stroke Foundation Canada, 2017, p. 2). 
​Reference entry:   

Heart and Stroke Foundation Canada. (2017). Learn the signs of stroke [Pamphlet].


Podcast Episodes

*General guidelines:

  • The host(s) or executive producer(s) can be listed as the author(s) for the podcast. Include the roles of the contributors in brackets after each name in the author list.
  • Differentiate between audio and video podcasts using a format description, e.g. [Audio podcast episode], [Video podcast episode]. 
  • Include a URL at the end if available online. Omit a URL if available through an app.
In-text: (Maron, 2020, 4:38).
Reference entry:

Maron, M. (Host). (2020, April 27). Laura Linney (No. 1118) [Audio podcast episode].  In WTF with Marc Maron podcast.



*General guidelines:

  • Include composer(s) as the author(s) and any other prominent contributors with roles in brackets as appropriate.
  • Include a format description that best describes the score following the title, e.g. [Vocal score] [Orchestral score].
In-text: (Gilbert & Sullivan, 1942).
Reference entry:

Gilbert, W. S. (Librettist), & Sullivan, A. (Composer). (1942). The pirates of Penzance, or, the slave of duty [Vocal score]. G. Schirmer.


Original score:

In text: (Ellington, 1963).
Reference entry:

Ellington, D. (1963). Bonga (empty town blues) [Full score]. Alfred/Belwin Jazz.


Transcribed score:

In text: (Ellington, 2014).
Reference entry:

Ellington, D. (2014). Bonga (empty town blues) [Full score]. (D. Berger, transcriber). Alfred/Belwin Jazz.


Social Media (X, Instagram, Facebook, TikTok)


*Include the following:

  • The name of the account owner followed by username in square brackets, if provided.
  • No more than 20 words of individual posts.
  • The presence of audiovisual content in square brackets after the post, e.g. [Video attached] [Image attached]
  • A format description in square brackets following the post, e.g. [Tweet]. 

Facebook example (learn more):

In-text: (Earth's General Store, 2018).
Reference entry:

Earth's General Store. (2021, February 21).New items to help people reduce their plastic footprint [Video attached] [Status update]. Facebook.


Instagram example (learn more):

In-text: (Ocasio-Cortez, 2019).
Reference entry:

Ocasio-Cortez, A. [@aoc]. (2019, October 18). Chairman Elijah Cummings was a hero. Just watch any video of him in any hearing and you will understand [Photograph]. Instagram.


X example (learn more):

In-text: (Notley, 2017).
Reference entry:

Notley, R. [@RachelNotley]. (2017, September 30). Raising Alberta’s minimum wage to $13.60 will boost the spending power of low-income people, which supports Alberta’s economic recovery [Post]. X.


TikTok example (learn more):

In-text: (World Health Organization, 2020).
Reference entry:

World Health Organization [@WHO]. (2020, May 29). Building back better from #covid19 means building back greener [Video]. TikTok.


Song Lyrics & Music Recordings


*General guidelines:

  • There is no neeed to identify where the song was heard be it a CD, Spotify, or elsewhere.
  • Include a URL at the end only if that is the only place a song can be located, e.g. an independent artists' SoundCloud account.
In-text: (Beyoncé, 2016, 0:38).
Reference entry:

Beyoncé. (2016). Formation [Song]. On Lemonade. Parkwood; Columbia.


Cover version of a song:

In-text: (Reed, 2000, 1:33).
Reference entry:

Reed, L. (2000). I found a reason [Song recorded by Cat Power]. The Covers Record. Matador. (Original work published 1970)


Streaming Videos (e.g., YouTube)

*Include the name of the account owner, if given, followed by the username in square brackets:

In-text: (Trudeau, 2018, 4:13).
Reference entry:

Trudeau, J. [pmocpm]. (2018, October 23). Prime Minister Trudeau announces federal pollution pricing system [Video]. YouTube.


*If no person’s name is given, only include the account or screen name:

In-text: (CBC News, 2017, 1:02).
Reference entry:

CBC News. (2017, October 25). How much do refugees and immigrants get in social assistance? [Video]. Curio.


Tables & Graphs

*General guidelines if including a table or graph from a published source:

  • Tables and graphs can appear in the text of your paper if highly relevant to the text, or at the end as supplementary materials after the References, but before or as part of an appendix. If included at the end, place each table or graph on its own page. 
  • Give a table number or figure number (for graphs) in bold, and number these sequentially in your paper.
    • Be sure to refer to the table or graph in the text of your paper e.g., (see Table 1). 
  • Below the Table or Figure number, provide a title describing the table or graph in italics. 
  • Add a note underneath the table that starts with "Note." in italics. Notes should describe the table's contents to help a reader interpret the information provided, and include a copyright attribution if reprinted or adapted from a published source.
  • Include a reference entry for the source of the table or graph at the end of your paper. 

Visit the APA Style Blog to learn more about formatting and citing tables and graphs. 

Table example:

Table 1

Animal Preferences by Number of Responses

Note. Reprinted from "A study of favourite animals," by Smith, J., 2018, Animal Journal, 3(1), p. 6. ( Copyright 2018 by the American Animal Association. 
Reference entry:  

Smith, J. (2018). A study of favourite animals. Animal Journal, 3(1), 4-16.


Graph example:

Figure 3

Academic Librarian Full and Part-Time Employment, 2018

Note. Adapted from 2018 census of Canadian academic librarians user guide and results summary, by E. Revitt, E. Magnus, A. Schrader, & J. Wright, 2019, p. 30 ( Copyright 2019 by the Canadian Association of Professional Academic Librarians.
Reference entry:

Revitt, E., Magnus, E., Schrader, A., & Wright, J. (2019). 2018 census of Canadian academic librarians user guide and results summary. Canadian Association of Professional Academic Librarians. 




With a DOI:

In-text: (Erickson, 2018, p. 81).
Reference entry:

Erickson, N. (2018). The other 'librarian': Work identity of library paraprofessionals from preparation to practice [Doctoral dissertation, University of Alberta]. ERA: Education and Research Archive.


Without a DOI:

In-text: (Lindsey, 2018, p. 81).
Reference entry:

Lindsey, L. (2018). Health within illness: Experiences of the chronically ill/disabled [Doctoral dissertation, University of Victoria]. UVicSpace.


TV Episodes

*There is no need to identify where or how the show was viewed be it Netflix, a DVD, or elsewhere.

In-text:  (Podeswa et al., 2017, 12:31)

​Reference entry: 

Podeswa, J. (Director), Benioff, D. (Writer), & Weiss, D.B. (Writer). (2017, July 16). Dragonstone (Season 7, Episode 1) [Television series episode]. In Benioff, D., & Weiss, D.B. (Executive Producers), Game of Thrones. HBO. 


Wikipedia Entries

*Since Wikipedia content changes frequently, cite the archived version of the page you have accessed. To do so, select "View History" from the article page and select the link for the version you have accessed noting its date for the reference entry. 

In-text: ("Edmonton," 2020, City Council section).
Reference entry:

Edmonton. (2020, June 2). In Wikipedia


Works of Art


Original work in a museum:

In-text: (da Vinci, 1503).
Reference entry:

da Vinci, L. (1503). Mona Lisa [Painting]. The Louvre, Paris, France.


Image of an original work from a museum website:

In-text: (da Vinci, 1503).
Reference entry:

da Vinci, L. (1503). Mona Lisa [Painting]. The Louvre, Paris, France.


Image of an original work from a library database (e.g., ARTstor):

In-text: (da Vinci, 1503).
Reference entry:

da Vinci, L. (1503). Mona Lisa [Painting]. ARTstor.




* General Guidelines:

  • If publication year is not available, add n.d. for no date.
  • If the author and publisher are the same, omit the publisher at the end of the reference entry to avoid duplication.
In-text: (Nault, n.d., p. 6).
Reference entry:

Nault, T. (n.d.). Wakey wakey for eggs n bac'y [Zine]. 

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