If you cite information in the text of your paper, you also need to include a more detailed reference entry for that work in a reference list at the end of your paper.
General rules are demonstrated below.
References should be arranged alphabetically by author last name for each entry. List authors in each entry in the order that they appear in the work. Use initials for any first and middle names; if hyphenated retain the hyphen: Xu, A.-J., for Ai-Jun Xu (APA, 2020, p. 286).
Two to twenty authors, list them all:
Twenty one or more authors, only list the first nineteen, . . . and the last author listed:
Multiple works by the same author, assign an a, b, c, and so on to works published in the same year:
Include the year of publication in brackets following author information:
For works published frequently, like newspaper articles and blog posts, include (year, month, day), if provided:
If no date is given, include (n.d.) in place of a date:
For article titles and titles of non-periodical publications like books, capitalize only the first word of titles, the first word of any sub-titles, and any proper nouns (also known as sentence-style capitalization):
For titles of periodicals, like journals, capitalize all main words in the title (also known as headline-style capitalization):
Titles of works that are part of larger works, like book chapters or article titles, should be written in plain font. Titles of works that are published as complete works, like book titles, journal titles, newspaper titles, or website titles, should be italicized.
Describe the format in square brackets following the title only if the source you are citing is something out of the ordinary, e.g. [Infographic] [Facebook status update] [Tweet] [Video]
Include a DOI if provided. These are commonly noted on the first page of journal articles, and in the front matter of eBooks.
Present DOIs as links starting with https://doi.org/ . . . (see the example below). Links should be live if the work is intended to be read online.
Note: If ezproxy.macewan.ca appears in the DOI (i.e. https://doi.org.ezproxy.macewan.ca/10...) you will need to reformat using CrossRef's Short DOI Service: shortdoi.org. Enter the DOI number beginning from 10. Steps illustrated below:
No DOI? For subscription content (e.g., from a library database) without a DOI do not include a link.
If you are unsure if your article has a DOI number or not, try using CrossRef's DOI Lookup tool.
If freely available online without a DOI, include a link to the source. Links should be live if the work is intended to be read online.
Pro tip: If worried about a link changing over time, try creating a permanent link using the Internet Archive's Save Page Now tool.
When the database is the content creator / author include the URL to the public website for the database (not the library subscription link).
For physical sources, include the publisher at the end of the reference:
If a source's author and publisher are the same, omit the publisher information at the end to avoid duplication:
If information provided by a web source changes over time and the source does not provide stable URLs or permanent links to previous versions, include "n.d." for "no date" rather than a date of publication and a retrieval date as shown:
If citing a Wikipedia entry, you can instead cite the archived version of the page you have accessed.
To do so, select "View History" from the article page and select the link for the version you have accessed noting its date for the reference entry: