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APA Citation Guide (7th Ed.)






Physical copy:

In-text: (Lunny, 2017, p. 34).
Reference entry:

Lunny, A. M. (2017). Debating hate crime: Language, legislatures, and the law in Canada. UBC Press.




With a digital object identifier (DOI):

In-text: (Ross, 2016, p. 11). 
Reference entry:

Ross, L. R. (2016). Interrogating motherhood. Athabasca University Press.


Without a DOI - from a library database:

In-text: (Chi-ang & Zheng, 2017, p. 65).
Reference entry:

Chi-ang, L. B., & Zheng, S. (2017). Environmental economics and sustainability. Wiley-Blackwell.


Without a DOI - free online:

In-text: (Little, 2016, p. 482). 
Reference entry:

Little, W. (2016). Introduction to sociology (2nd Canadian ed.).


Edited Books


In-text(Daniels et al., 2017, p. 76).
Reference entry:

Daniels, J., Gregory, K., & Cottom, T. M. (Eds.). (2017). Digital sociologies. Policy Press. 


Chapters in Edited Books


*Include the chapter authors and title before listing the editors and book title in your reference entry.

In-text: (Tveit, 2017, p. 115).

Reference entry:

Tveit, A. D. (2017). Parental involvement in school: Applying Habermas’ theoretical framework. In M. Murphy (Ed.)Habermas and social research: Between theory and method (pp. 109-121). Routledge. 


Editions of Books (e.g., Textbooks)


In-text: (Powell et al., 2016, p. 130).
Reference entry:

Powell, R. A., Honey, P. L., & Symbaluk, D. G. (2016). Introduction to learning and behaviour (5th ed.). Cengage Learning.


Chapter in an edition of a book:
* in brackets, include the edition number followed by the page range.

In-text: (Wadeson, 2001, p. 310).
Reference entry:

Wadeson, H. (2001). An eclectic approach to art therapy. In J. A. Rubin (Ed.),  Approaches to art therapy: Theory and technique (2nd ed., pp. 306-318). Brunner-Routledge.


Canadian edition:

In-text: (Smith & Sansom, 2014, p. 12).
Reference entry:

Smith, C., & Sansom, K. (2014). How to prepare for the GED test (Canadian ed.). Barrons Educational Series. 


Canadian adaptation:

*In this example, separate Canadian editors and authors contributed to an adaptation of the original American text. Canadian editors are listed first in this case, followed by US editors as noted in parentheses.

In-text: (Barton & Foster-Boucher, 2019, p. 140).
Reference entry:

Barton, S. S. & Foster-Boucher, C. (2019). Indigenous health. In B. J. Astle & W. Duggleby (Eds.) & A. Potter, A. G. Perry, P. Stockert, & A Hall (US 9th ed. Eds.), Canadian fundamentals of nursing (6th ed., pp. 133-156). Elsevier.  


Translated Books


Translated Book:

*Include the original publication year in-text and at the end of the reference, and credit the translator, as shown. 

In-text: (Fortunati, 1981/1995, p. 62).
Reference entry:

Fortunati, L. (1995). The arcane reproduction of housework, prostitution, labour and capital (H. Creek, Trans.). Automedia. (Original work published 1981)


Encyclopedia & Dictionary Entries


Free online:

*Include "n.d." for "no date" rather than a date of publication and a retrieval date as shown if information provided by the source changes over time and the source does not provide stable URLs or permanent links to previous versions:

In-text: (Merriam-Webster, n.d., Anti-racist section).
Reference entry:

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Anti-racist. In dictionary. Retrieved June 2, 2020, from


Physical copy or from a library database:

In-text: (Wexier, 2006, p. 1651).
Reference entry:

Wexler, B. (2006). Myocardial infarction. In The Gale encyclopedia of nursing and allied health (Vol. 3, pp. 1646-1652). Gale.


Entry with no author: 

In-text: ("Poverty," 2002, p. 535). 
Reference entry:

Poverty. (2002). In K. Rooney et al. (Eds.), World English dictionary (8th ed., p. 535). St. Martin's Press.




*Note the following:

  • Include a timestamp when quoting audiobook content.
  • If the audiobook was published in a year different from the text version, include that original publication date at the end of the citation similar to translated work example above, e.g. (Original work published 2003)
In-text: (Maxwell, 2019, 2:27:13).
Reference entry:

Maxwell, J.C. (2019). Leadershift: The 11 essential changes every leader must embrace (J. Maxwell, R. Hollis, & T. Shelton, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Brilliance Audio.


Artists' Books


Formally published:

In-text: (Pei, 2003, p. 3).
Reference entry:

Pei, M. (2003). Necessary disclosure [Artist book]. Women's Studio Workshop.


*If author and publisher are the same, omit the publisher to avoid duplication.

In-text: (McCartney, 2008, p. 2).
Reference entry:

McCartney, S. (2008). Incantation [Artist book]. 

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