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APA Citation Guide (7th Ed.)



Journal Articles

With a digital object identifier (DOI):

In-text: (Sunga, 2017, p. 138).
Reference entry:

Sunga, S. (2017). Dealing with oppression: Indigenous relations with the state in Canada. Ethics & Social Welfare, 11(2), 135-148.


Without a DOI - physical copy or from a library database:
*Do not include a URL.

In-text: (Frenzel et al., 2014, p. 16).
Reference entry: 

Frenzel, E. D., Bowen, K. N., Spraitz, J. D., Bowers, J. H., & Phaneuf, S. (2014). Understanding collateral consequences of registry laws: An examination of the perceptions of sex offender registrants. Justice Policy Journal, 11(2), 1-22.


Without a DOI - free online:
*Only include a URL to the article if it is free without a subscription, also known as "open access."

In-text: (Henitiuk, 2003, p. 412).
Reference entry:

Henitiuk, V. (2003). Step into my parlour: Magical realism and the creation of a feminist space. Canadian Review of Comparative Literature, 30(2), 410-427.


Advance online publication:
*Includes articles that have been published but not yet assigned to a volume and issue. 

In-text: (Boulianne, 2018, p. 3). 
Reference entry:

Boulianne, S. (2018). Twenty years of digital media effects on civic and political participation. Communication Research. Advance online publication.


Conference Papers

With a DOI:

In-text: (Sambamurthy et al., 2016, p. 5).
Reference entry:

Sambamurthy, N., Sanchez-Pena, M., Main, J.B., Cox, M., & McGee, E. (2016, October 14). Asian-American women engineering faculty: A literature review using an intersectional framework of race, class, and gender [Paper presentation]. Frontiers in Education Conference, Erie, PA, United States.


Without a DOI - Unpublished, physical copy or from a library database:

In-text: (Valdez, 2014, p. 3).
​​Reference entry:​

Valdez, L. (2014, March 1). The use of coca leaves in the Peruvian central highlands before the Inka [Paper presentation]. 42nd Annual Midwest Conference on Andean and Amazonian Archaeology and Ethnohistory, Milwaukee, WI, United States.


Without a DOI - free online:
*Include a URL at the end if freely available online. Otherwise, follow the "Unpublished" format above.  

In-text: (Pollock, 2011, p. 7).
​Reference entry:

Pollock, C. (2011, April 15-16). A pragmatic and conservative measure: Catholic toleration in Quebec after the Treaty of Paris​ [Paper presentation]. Joint Meeting of the Canadian and American Catholic Historical Associations, Toronto, ON, Canada.


News Articles

The 7th edition of the APA distinguishes between citing a web page found on a news website and citing an article from an online newspaper, and it can be difficult to know which kind of source you are using.

If the article is from a source published periodically (e.g., daily, weekly, monthly), you are citing from an online newspaper. These sources are often also published in print.

If the source is not published at any regular interval, it is a news website. Some news websites exist on their own, and others are connected to broadcast news sources (radio or television). 

Online Newspaper Article:
Includes sources like The Edmonton Journal, The Globe and Mail, and The New York Times. 

In-text: (Giesbrecht, 2018, para. 5).
Reference entry:

Giesbrecht, L. (2018, September 4). Regina woman uses painting to tell immigrant women’s stories. Regina Leader Post. 


Web Page from a News Website :
Includes sources like BBC News, CBC, CNN, HuffPost. 

In-text: (Newton & Holcombe, 2017, para. 5).
Reference entry:

Newton, P., & Holcombe, M. (2020, May 26). Canada wants national sick leave plan in place for second wave of the coronavirus pandemic. CNN.


Article from a Physical Copy of a Newspaper or from a Library Database:

In-text: (French, 2017, p. A3).
Reference entry:

French, J. (2017, December 20). 27% of elementary students reading below grade level. Edmonton Journal, A3.


*If there is no author, start the reference entry with the article title. For your in-text citation, place the title in quotation marks. You can shorten a long title if needed. 

In-text: (“Homeless Veterans in Focus,” 2017, para. 7).

​​Reference entry:
Homeless veterans in focus. (2017, May 9). Thunder Bay Chronicle Journal



Magazine Articles


In-text: (Audette-Longo, 2018, para. 9).
Reference entry:

Audette-Longo, T. (2018, March 1). Salestaxphobia: Can we get over our unique aversion? Alberta Views21(2), 30-34.


Physical copy or from a library database:

In-text: (Heller, 2019, p. 354).
Reference entry:

Heller, N. (2019, March 1). Dark victory. Vogue, 209(3), 354-406.


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