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APA Citation Guide (7th Ed.)


Course Materials

Class Lecture Notes


Lecture notes written during class:

*These are considered personal communications with the instructor and are not included in the reference list. If your instructor does require a reference entry for information taken from class notes, please consult with them about their preferred way of formatting these citations.  

"Hand hygiene is critical to preventing the spread of infections between patients" (B.J. Smith, personal communication, February 15, 2019).
No reference entry


Lecture notes posted online:

*Include a URL if the notes are posted freely online or available to the audience reading the work (e.g., an instructor who has the notes posted to their mêskanâs site).

In-text: (Williams, 2019, p. 4).
Reference entry:

Williams, Z. (2020, January 28). [Lecture on feminist approaches to the economy]. Department of Economics, MacEwan University.


PowerPoint Slides


*If available to the audience reading the work (e.g., the instructor for that course) include a URL to the website hosting the work (e.g., MacEwan's mêskanâs site).

In-text: (Cogswell, 2019, slide 2).
Reference entry:

Cogswell, T. (2019, February 13). PSYC 233: Theories of personality [Powerpoint slides]. Department of Psychology, MacEwan University.




Print handout by the instructor distributed during class:

In-text: (Birdsworth, 2019, p. 2).
Reference entry:

Birdsworth, T. (2019). Introduction to chemistry: Lab safety instructions [Class handout]. Department of Chemistry, MacEwan University.


Online handout by the instructor available to them in mêskanâs:

*Omit the URL if the resource is not available to the audience reading the work. 

In-text: (Birdsworth, 2019, p. 2).
Reference entry:

Birdsworth, T. (2019). Introduction to chemistryLab safety instructions [Class handout].  Department of Chemistry, MacEwan University.


Readings Compiled by an Instructor (e.g., course packs, custom textbooks, eReserves)


General guidelines:

  • If the source of an individual reading such an article or book chapter is clear, cite it as a standalone source. 
  • If unsure what the source of the information is, contact your instructor. 
  • For original, unpublished course readings, treat the source as part of an anthology compiled by the instructor who is noted in the citation as the compiler (Comp.) of the materials:
In-text: (Hall, 2019, p. 61).
Reference entry:

Hall, R. (2018). Gender issues in interpersonal communication. In E. Revitt & J. Nelson (Comps.), Contemporary Issues in Communication and Human Interaction: BSCS 101 Spring, 2018 [Custom textbook] (2nd. ed., pp. 57-82). MacEwan University.


Course materials compiled by an instructor with unknown author:

In-text: ("Cognitive Mechanisms," 2019, p. 36 ).
​Reference entry:

Cognitive mechanisms: Selected readings. (2019). In E. J. Revitt (Comp.), PSYC 355: Social cognition (pp. 34-49). MacEwan University.


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