With a digital object identifier (DOI):
Without a DOI:
*Include a URL to the journal's homepage.
Advance online publication:
*Includes articles that have been published but not yet assigned to a volume and issue.
Published in North America:
*If multiple places are listed, only include the first one.
Published outside of North America:
*Include the city and country instead of the city and province or state abbreviation.
With a digital object identifier (DOI):
Without a DOI - from a subscription service:
Without a DOI - free online:
*Include the chapter authors and title before listing the editors and book title in your reference entry.
Chapter in an edition of a book:
* in brackets, include the edition number followed by the page range.
*In this example, separate Canadian editors contributed to an adaptation of the original American text, noted following the edition information and page numbers.
*This book was originally published in Italian in 1981. The English translation was published in 1995. Always cite and reference the translation, or version, that you are actually reading.
Web page with a personal author:
Web page with a corporate author:
* Only italicize the title of stand-alone works appearing on a website (e.g., reports, position statements).
Mentioning a website as a whole:
*Include a link in-text and do not include the website in your reference list:
*Include the following:
Facebook example (learn more):
Instagram example (learn more):
Twitter example (learn more):
*These are considered personal communications with the instructor and are not included in the reference list. However, if your instructor does require a reference entry for information taken from class notes, please consult with them about their preferred way of formatting these citations.
Print handout by the instructor distributed during class:
Online handout by the instructor and available in Blackboard:
Course materials compiled by an instructor with unknown author:
*General guidelines (see also - Business Citation Examples):
General template for citing data resources:
*Publisher/Distributor is an optional element; if the same as the Author/Rightsholder, omit from the reference entry.
Dataset with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI):
Dataset without DOI:
Data table or custom tabulation:
Graphic representation of data:
*Include a retrieval date if information provided by the source changes over time and does not have a stable URL or permanent link.
In APA, any illustration that is not a table is considered a figure. Number each figure used in your paper sequentially, including the following information beneath each one:
Public domain images:
*The image below is in the public domain meaning there are no restrictions on how the image can be used. If publication year is not available, add n.d. for no date.
Creative commons licensed images:
*The image below was posted online with a Creative Commons license. The CC BY-SA means that the image can be shared and adapted.
*Because the graph below represents only a tiny fraction of the 82-page report it appeared in, it is considered an insubstantial amount and copyright does not apply. However, it is still important to label the bar graph to let the reader know what it is and where it was found.
*Unlike other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the reference list. The following citation style was developed by NorQuest College Library in the spirit of wahkôhtowin and reconciliation and was adapted under a CC BY-NC license.
Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol. If you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.
Legislation and statutes:
Legal materials in Martin's Annual Criminal Code:
*Include the date of recording in brackets at the end of the citation if different from the copyright year.
*The songwriter(s) should be listed as the author(s), and the recording artist is included in square brackets following the title:
*If including a table from another source, add a note underneath the table as well as a reference entry at the end of your paper.
*Include the name of the account owner, if given, followed by the username in square brackets:
*If no person’s name is given, only include the account or screen name: