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APA Citation Guide (6th Ed.)



Journal Articles

With a digital object identifier (DOI):

In-text paraphrase: (Sunga, 2017).
In-text quote: (Sunga, 2017, p. 138).
Reference entry:

Sunga, S. (2017). Dealing with oppression: Indigenous relations with the state in Canada. Ethics & Social Welfare, 11(2), 135-148. doi:10.1080/17496535.2017.1293118


Without a DOI:
*Include a URL to the journal's homepage.

In-text paraphrase: (Frenzel, Bowen, Spraitz, Bowers, & Phaneuf, 2014).
In-text quote: (Frenzel, Bowen, Spraitz, Bowers, & Phaneuf, 2014, p. 16).
Reference entry: 

Frenzel, E. D., Bowen, K. N., Spraitz, J. D., Bowers, J. H., & Phaneuf, S. (2014). Understanding collateral consequences of registry laws: An examination of the perceptions of sex offender registrants. Justice Policy Journal, 11(2), 1-22. Retrieved from 


Physical copy:

In-text paraphrase: (Howell & Symbaluk, 2001).
In-text quote: (Howell & Symbaluk, 2001, p. 794).
Reference entry:

Howell, A. J., & Symbaluk, D. G. (2001). Published student ratings: Reconciling the views of students and faculty. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(4), 790-796.


Advance online publication:
*Includes articles that have been published but not yet assigned to a volume and issue. 

In-text paraphrase: (Boulianne, 2018).
In-text quote: (Boulianne, 2018, p. 3). 
Reference entry:

Boulianne, S. (2018). Twenty years of digital media effects on civic and political participation. Communication Research. Advance online publication. doi:10.1177/0093650218808186


Conference Papers

With a DOI:

In-text paraphrase: (Sambamurthy, Sanchez-Pena, Main, Cox, & McGee, 2016).
In-text quote: (Sambamurthy, Sanchez-Pena, Main, Cox, & McGee, 2016, p. 5).
Reference entry:

Sambamurthy, N., Sanchez-Pena, M., Main, J.B., Cox, M., & McGee, E. (2016, October 14). Asian-American women engineering faculty: A literature review using an intersectional framework of race, class, and gender. Paper presented at Frontiers in Education Conference, Erie, PA. doi:10.1109/FIE.2016.7757518


Without a DOI:

In-text paraphrase: (Sanneh, 2016).
In-text quote: (Sanneh, 2016, p. 91).
​Reference entry:

Sanneh, N. (2016, April). Sport for development and peace. Paper presented at the G20 Youth Forum, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany: G200 Association.



In-text paraphrase: Valdez, 2014).
In-text quote: (Valdez, 2014, p. 3).
​​Reference entry:​

Valdez, L. (2014, March 1). The use of coca leaves in the Peruvian central highlands before the Inka. Paper presented at the 42nd Annual Midwest Conference on Andean and Amazonian Archaeology and Ethnohistory, Milwaukee, WI.


News Articles


In-text paraphrase: (Hughes, 2017).
In-text quote: (Hughes, 2017, para. 5).
Reference entry:

Hughes, G. (2017, December 20). Montreal suspends pit bull ban, plans consultations. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from


Online, unknown author:

In-text paraphrase: (“Homeless Veterans in Focus,” 2017).
In-text quote: (“Homeless Veterans in Focus,” 2017, para. 7).
​​Reference entry:

Homeless veterans in focus. (2017, May 9). Thunder Bay Chronicle Journal. Retrieved from


Physical copy:

In-text paraphrase: (French, 2017).
In-text quote: (French, 2017, p. A3).
Reference entry:

French, J. (2017, December 20). 27% of elementary students reading below grade level. Edmonton Journal, p. A3.


Magazine Articles


In-text paraphrase: (Audette-Longo, 2018).
In-text quote: (Audette-Longo, 2018, p. 32).
Reference entry:

Audette-Longo, T. (2018, March 1). Salestaxphobia: Can we get over our unique aversion? Alberta Views21(2), 30-34. Retrieved from


Physical copy:

In-text paraphrase: (Heller, 2019)
In-text quote: (Heller, 2019, p. 354).
Reference entry:

Heller, N. (2019, March 1). Dark victory. Vogue, 209(3),  pp. 354-406.





Published in North America: 
*If multiple places are listed, only include the first one. 

In-text paraphrase: (Lunny, 2017).
In-text quote: (Lunny, 2017, p. 34).
Reference entry:

Lunny, A. M. (2017). Debating hate crime: Language, legislatures, and the law in Canada. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.


Published outside of North America:
*Include the city and country instead of the city and province or state abbreviation.

In-text paraphrase: (Haith, 2018).
In-text quote: (Haith, 2018, p. 53).
Reference entry:

Haith, M. (2018). Understanding mental health practice. London, United Kingdom: Learning Matters.




With a digital object identifier (DOI):

In-text paraphrase: (Ross, 2016). 
In-text quote: (Ross, 2016, p. 11). 
Reference entry:

Ross, L. R. (2016). Interrogating motherhood. doi:10.15215/aupress/9781771991438.01


Without a DOI - from a subscription service:

In-text paraphrase: (Chi-ang & Zheng, 2017).
In-text quote: (Chi-ang & Zheng, 2017, p. 65).
Reference entry:

Chi-ang, L. B., & Zheng, S. (2017). Environmental economics and sustainability. Retrieved from


Without a DOI - free online:

In-text paraphrase: (Little, 2016). 
In-text quote: (Little, 2016, p. 482). 
Reference entry:

Little, W. (2016). Introduction to sociology (2nd Canadian ed.). Retrieved from


Edited Books


Online eBook:

In-text paraphrase: (Daniels, Gregory, & Cottom, 2017).
In-text quote: (Daniels, Gregory, & Cottom, 2017, p. 76).
Reference entry:

Daniels, J., Gregory, K., & Cottom, T. M. (Eds.). (2017). Digital sociologies. doi:10.2307/j.ctt1t89cfr


Physical copy:

In-text paraphrase: (Daniels, Gregory, & Cottom, 2017).
In-text quote(Daniels, Gregory, & Cottom, 2017, p. 76).
Reference entry:

Daniels, J., Gregory, K., & Cottom, T. M. (Eds.). (2017). Digital sociologies. Bristol, England: Policy Press. 


Chapters in Edited Books


Online eBook:
*Include the chapter authors and title before listing the editors and book title in your reference entry.

In-text paraphrase: (Tveit, 2017).
In-text quote: (Tveit, 2017, p. 115).
Reference entry:

Tveit, A. D. (2017). Parental involvement in school: Applying Habermas’ theoretical framework. In M. Murphy (Ed.), Habermas and social research: Between theory and method (pp. 109-121). Retrieved from


Physical copy:

In-text paraphrase: (Tveit, 2017).
In-text quote: (Tveit, 2017, p. 115).
Reference entry:

Tveit, A. D. (2017). Parental involvement in school: Applying Habermas’ theoretical framework. In M. Murphy (Ed.), Habermas and social research: Between theory and method (pp. 109-121). London, England: Routledge. 


Editions of Books (e.g., Textbooks)


In-text paraphrase: (Powell, Honey, & Symbaluk, 2016).
In-text quote: (Powell, Honey, & Symbaluk, 2016, p. 130).
Reference entry:

Powell, R. A., Honey, P. L., & Symbaluk, D. G. (2016). Introduction to learning and behaviour (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.



Chapter in an edition of a book:
* in brackets, include the edition number followed by the page range.

In-text paraphrase: (Wadeson, 2001).
In-text quote: (Wadeson, 2001, p. 310).
Reference entry:

Wadeson, H. (2001). An eclectic approach to art therapy. In J. A. Rubin (Ed.),  Approaches to art therapy: Theory and technique (2nd ed., pp. 306-318). New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.


Canadian edition:

In-text paraphrase:  (Smith & Sansom, 2014).
In-text quote: (Smith & Sansom, 2014, p. 12).
Reference entry:

Smith, C., & Sansom, K. (2014). How to prepare for the GED test (Cdn. ed.). Hauppauge, NY: Barrons Educational Series. 

Adapted & Translated Books


Adapted Book:

*In this example, separate Canadian editors contributed to an adaptation of the original American text, noted following the edition information and page numbers.

In-text Paraphrase:  (Petrucka, 2014).
In-text quote: (Petrucka, 2014, p. 17).
Reference entry:

Petrucka, P. L. (2014). The Canadian health care delivery system. In P. A. Potter, A. G. Perry, P. A. Stockert & A. M. Hall (Eds.), Canadian fundamentals of nursing (5th ed., pp. 15-27) (J. C. Ross-Kerr, M. J. Wood, B. J. Astle & W. Duggleby, Cdn. Adapt.). Toronto, ON: Elsevier Canada.


Translated Book:

*This book was originally published in Italian in 1981. The English translation was published in 1995. Always cite and reference the translation, or version, that you are actually reading. 

In-text Paraphrase:  (Fortunati, 1995).
In-text quote: (Fortunati, 1995, p. 62).
Reference entry:
Fortunati, L. (1995). The arcane reproduction of housework, prostitution, labour and capital (H. Creek,
Trans.). Brooklyn, NY: Automedia.



Encyclopedias & Dictionaries



In-text paraphrase: (Khan, 2011).
In-text quote: (Khan, 2011, p. 122).
Reference entry:

Khan, M. (2011). Bipolar disorder. In B. Cohen (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychiatric disorders (Vol. 1, pp. 121-135). Retrieved from


Physical copy:

In-text paraphrase: (Wexier, 2006).
In-text quote: (Wexier, 2006, p. 1651).
Reference entry:

Wexler, B. (2006). Myocardial infarction. In The Gale encyclopedia of nursing and allied health (Vol. 3, pp. 1646-1652). Detroit, MI: Gale.


Entry with no author: 

In-text paraphrase: ("Poverty," 2002). 
In-text quote: ("Poverty," 2002, p. 535). 
Reference entry:

Poverty. (2002). In K. Rooney et al. (Eds.), World English dictionary (8th ed., p. 535). New York, NY: St. Martin's Press.




*Include a timestamp when quoting audiobook content.

In-text paraphrase: (Maxwell, 2019).
In-text quote: (Maxwell, 2019, 2:27:13).
Reference entry:

Maxwell, J.C. (2019). Leadershift: The 11 essential changes every leader must embrace [Audiobook]. Grand Have, MI: Brilliance Audio.


Artists' Books


Formally published:

In-text paraphrase: (Pei, 2003).
In-text quote: (Pei, 2003, p. 3).
Reference entry:

Pei, M. (2003). Necessary disclosure [Artist book]. Rosendale, NY: Women's Studio Workshop.


*If author and publisher are the same, include "Author" in place of the publisher to avoid duplication.

In-text paraphrase: (McCartney, 2008).
In-text quote: (McCartney, 2008, p. 2).
Reference entry:

McCartney, S. (2008). Incantation [Artist book]. Belchertown, MA: Author.

Web Pages

Web page with a personal author:

In-text paraphrase: (Liddon, 2019)
In-text quote: (Liddon, 2019, My Story, para. 3).
Reference entry:

Liddon, A. (2019). About. Retrieved from


Web page with a corporate author:

* Only italicize the title of stand-alone works appearing on a website (e.g., reports, position statements). 

In-text paraphrase: (Department of Justice Canada, 2017)
In-text quote: (Department of Justice Canada, 2017, "Extrajudicial Measures," para. 1).
Reference entry:

Department of Justice Canada. (2017, August 8). The youth criminal justice act summary and background. Retrieved from 


Mentioning a website as a whole:

*Include a link in-text and do not include the website in your reference list:

Students can find answers to APA questions on the APA Style Blog (
No reference entry.


Government Reports


*Include a catalogue or report number in parentheses, if given:

​In-text paraphrase: (O’Donnell, Wendt, & the National Association of Friendship Centres, 2017).
​In-text quote: (O’Donnell, Wendt, & the National Association of Friendship Centres, 2017, p. 8).
Reference entry:

O’Donnell, V., Wendt, M, & the National Association of Friendship Centres. (2017, March 21). Aboriginal seniors in population centres in Canada (Catalogue No 89-653-X). Retrieved from


Social Media (Twitter, Instagram, Facebook)


*Include the following:

  • A format description in square brackets following the title, e.g. [Tweet].
  • The name of the account owner followed by username in square brackets, if provided.
  • No more than 40 words of individual posts.

Facebook example (learn more):

In-text citation paraphrase or quote: (Earth's General Store Whyte, 2018).
Reference entry:

Earth's General Store Whyte. (2018, October 23). Tomorrow is #WasteFreeWednesday. We have a mountain of plastic waste already fill up our world [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from


Instagram example (learn more):

In-text citation paraphrase or quote: (Ocasio-Cortez, 2019).
Reference entry:

Ocasio-Cortez, A. [ocasio2018]. (2019, March 8). I am a public servant - that means my job is to put other people’s needs before my own, not the other way around [Instagram post]. Retrieved from


Twitter example (learn more):

In-text citation paraphrase or quote: (Notley, 2017).
Reference entry:

Notley, R. [RachelNotley]. (2017, September 30). Raising Alberta’s minimum wage to $13.60 will boost the spending power of low-income people, which supports Alberta’s economic recovery [Tweet]. Retrieved from


Blog Posts


In-text paraphrase: (Cournoyer, 2019).
In-text quote: (Cournoyer, 2019, para. 3).
Reference entry:

Cournoyer, D. (2019, April 4). This is sad. Alberta’s leaders’ debate remarkable for being horribly boring [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Class Lecture Notes


*These are considered personal communications with the instructor and are not included in the reference list. However, if your instructor does require a reference entry for information taken from class notes, please consult with them about their preferred way of formatting these citations.  

In-text paraphrase:
Washing your hands is very important to limiting the spread of infection in hospitals (B.J. Smith, personal communication, February 15, 2019).
In-text quote: 
"Hand hygiene is critical to preventing the spread of infections between patients" (B.J. Smith, personal communication, February 15, 2019).
No reference entry


PowerPoint Slides


In-text paraphrase: (Cogswell, 2019).
In-text quote: (Cogswell, 2019, slide 2).
Reference entry:

Cogswell, T. (2019, February 13). PSYC 233: Theories of personality [Powerpoint slides]. Retrieved from




Print handout by the instructor distributed during class:

In-text paraphrase: (Birdsworth, 2019).
In-text quote: (Birdsworth, 2019, p. 2).
Reference entry:

Birdsworth, T. (2019). Introduction to chemistry: Lab safety instructions [Class handout]. Edmonton, AB: MacEwan University.


Online handout by the instructor and available in Blackboard:

In-text paraphrase: (Birdsworth, 2019).
In-text quote: (Birdsworth, 2019, p. 2).
Reference entry:

Birdsworth, T. (2019). Introduction to chemistryLab safety instructions [Class handout]. Retrieved from


Readings Compiled by an Instructor (e.g., course packs, custom textbooks, eReserves)


  • If the source of an individual reading such an article or book chapter is clear, cite it as a standalone source. 
  • If unsure what the source of the information is, contact your instructor. 
  • For original, unpublished course readings, treat the source as part of an anthology compiled by the instructor who is noted in the citation as the compiler (Comp.) of the materials:
In-text paraphrase: (Hall, 2019).
In-text quote: (Hall, 2019, p. 61).
Reference entry:

Hall, R. (2018). Gender issues in interpersonal communication. In E. Revitt & J. Nelson (Comps.), Contemporary Issues in Communication and Human Interaction: BSCS 101 Spring, 2018 [Custom textbook] (2nd. ed.) (pp. 57-82). Edmonton, AB: MacEwan University.


Course materials compiled by an instructor with unknown author:

In-text paraphrase: ("Cognitive Mechanisms," 2019).
In-text quote: ("Cognitive Mechanisms," 2019, p. 36 ).
​Reference entry:

Cognitive mechanisms: Selected readings. (2019). In E. J. Revitt (Comp.), PSYC 355: Social cognition (pp. 34-49). Edmonton, AB: MacEwan University.


Business Database Reports/Documents


*General guidelines (see also - Business Citation Examples):

  • If there is no author listed, use the name of the database instead.
  • If the document does not have a stable URL or permanent link, use the name of the database instead.
  • Include a format description following the title, e.g. [Company profile] [Industry profile] [SWOT report].
In-text paraphrase: (Marketline, 2016).
In-text quote: (Marketline, 2016, para. 4).
Reference entry:

Marketline. (2016, December 9). Lululemon Athletica Inc. [Company profile]. Retrieved from Marketline Advantage database.


Case Studies


*Include a case identification number, if provided.

In-text paraphrase: (Goode & Mark, 2019).
In-text quote: (Goode & Mark, 2019, p. 4).
Reference entry:

Goode, M.R. & Mark, K. (2019). Mixtape social: Building brands for athletes and companies. Ivey ID 9B19A012. London, ON: Ivey Publishing.


Data & Statistics

General template for citing data resources:
*Publisher/Distributor is an optional element; if the same as the Author/Rightsholder, omit from the reference entry.

In-text paraphrase: (Author/Rightsholder, Year).
In-text quote: (Author/Rightsholder, Year, page/section/figure/table number if available).
Reference entry:

Author/Rightsholder. (Year). Title of dataset/document [Description of form]. Publisher/Distributor [Distributor]. DOI or retrieved from URL


Dataset with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

In-text: (Gurr, 2006)
Reference entry:

Gurr, T. R. (2006). Polity II: Political structures and regime change, 1800-1986 [Data file and codebook]. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [Distributor].


Dataset without DOI:

In-text: (Statistics Canada, 2011).

Reference entry:
Statistics Canada. (2011). Canadian Community Health Survey, 2010: Annual component [Public use microdata file and codebook]. Odesi [Distributor]. Retrieved from


Data table or custom tabulation:

In-text: (Statistics Canada, 2017).
Reference entry:

Statistics Canada. (2017). Table 13-10-0105-01 Volatile organic compound levels measured in household air [Table]. Retrieved from


Graphic representation of data:
*Include a retrieval date if information provided by the source changes over time and does not have a stable URL or permanent link.

In-text paraphrase: (Edmonton Police Service, 2019).
In-text quote: (Edmonton Police Service, 2019, "Allendale, break and enter").
Reference entry:

Edmonton Police Service. (2019). Neighbourhood crime map - Allendale, break and enter, last 60 days [Interactive map]. Retrieved on May 23, 2019 from


Data dashboard:

In-text paraphrase: (City of Edmonton, 2016).
In-text quote: (City of Edmonton, 2016, Housing).
Reference entry:

City of Edmonton. (2016). 2016 census neighborhood profile - Westwood [Tableau dashboard]. Retrieved from


Figures, Photos & Graphs

In APA, any illustration that is not a table is considered a figure. Number each figure used in your paper sequentially, including the following information beneath each one:

Figure #. Caption information. Source information. Creator. Date. Copyright information. 


Public domain images:
The image below is in the public domain meaning there are no restrictions on how the image can be used. If publication year is not available, add n.d. for no date.

In text:
skeleton and muscle
Figure 1. Human skeleton muscle and bones. From, by P. Siedlecki, n.d. In the public domain. 
Reference entry:

Siedlecki, P. (n.d.). Human skeleton muscle and bones [Digital photo]. Retrieved from


Creative commons licensed images:
The image below was posted online with a Creative Commons license. The CC BY-SA means that the image can be shared and adapted. 

In text:

Figure 2. Reforestation on the region of Oued el Himer, Oriental, Morocco. From flickr, by M. Soufiane, 2014. CC BY-SA.
Reference entry:

Soufiane, M. (2014). Reforestation on the region of Oued el HimerOriental, Morocco [Digital photo]. Retrieved from


*Because the graph below represents only a tiny fraction of the 82-page report it appeared in, it is considered an insubstantial amount and copyright does not apply. However, it is still important to label the bar graph to let the reader know what it is and where it was found.

In text:

Figure 3. Are you employed part-time or full-time? Adapted from 2018 census of Canadian academic librarians user guide and results summary, by E. Revitt, E. Magnus, A. Schrader, & J. Wright, 2019, p. 30. 
Reference entry:

Revitt, E., Magnus, E., Schrader, A., & Wright, J. (2019). 2018 census of Canadian academic librarians user guide and results summary [Report]. Retrieved from the Canadian Association of Professional Academic Librarians website:




*List only prominent contributors as the author(s), e.g., the director, writers, producer. 

In-text paraphrase: (Polley, 2012).
In-text quote: (Polley, 2012, 1:02:34).
Reference entry (online):

Polley, S. (Writer & Director). (2012). Stories we tell [Film]. Retrieved from

​Reference entry (physical copy):

​Polley, S. (Writer & Director). (2012). Stories we tell [DVD]. Toronto, ON: Mongrel Media. 


Knowledge Keepers & Indigenous Elders


*Unlike other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the reference list. The following citation style was developed by NorQuest College Library in the spirit of wahkôhtowin and reconciliation and was adapted under a CC BY-NC license.

In-text citation: (Cardinal, personal communication, 2004).

Template to follow:

Last name, First initial., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory, if applicable. Where they live, if applicable. Topic/subject of communication, if applicable [Personal communication]. Date.

Reference entry:

Cardinal, D., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching [Personal communication]. April 4, 2004. 

Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol. If you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.


Legal Materials

Legislation and statutes:

In-text paraphrase: (Canada Labour Code, 1985).
In-text quote: (Canada Labour Code, 1985, s. 14). Only include page or section numbers if your instructor requests them.
Reference entry:

Canada Labour Code, RSC 1985, c. L-2.



In-text paraphrase: (Goertz v Oliver, 2018).
In-text quote: (Goertz v Oliver, 2018, s. 37). Only include page or section numbers if your instructor requests them.
Reference entry:

Goertz v Oliver, 2018 ABQB 363.



*General guidelines:

  • Because bills are in-progress, including an access date can help the reader determine the stage at which you viewed the document.
  • Shorten the title of the bill in your in-text citation.
In-text paraphrase: (Bill C-77, 2019).
In-text quote: (Bill C-77, 2019, s. 3). Only include page or section numbers if your instructor requests them.
Reference entry:

Bill C-77: An Act to amend the National Defense Act and to make related and consequential amendments to other Acts. 42nd Parliament, 1st Session, December 3, 2015-Present. Retrieved from the Parliament of Canada, LEGISinfo website on April 9, 2019:


Legal materials in Martin's Annual Criminal Code:

In-text paraphrase: (Canada Evidence Act, 1985).
In-text quote: (Canada Evidence Act, 1985, s. 37.3).
Reference entry:

Canada Evidence Act. (1985). In Martin's Annual Criminal Code 2019 (Student ed., pp. 1819-1893). Toronto, ON: Thomson Reuters.


Music Recordings


*Include the date of recording in brackets at the end of the citation if different from the copyright year.

In-text paraphrase (whole song): (Akst & Clarke, 1929, track 13)
In-text quote: (Akst & Clarke, 1929, 2:29)
Reference entry (online):
Akst H., & Clarke G. (1929). Am I blue [Recorded by Dinah Washington]. On After hours with Miss D [Streaming audio]. Retrieved from (2004)
Reference entry (physical):
Akst H., & Clarke G. (1929). Am I blue [Recorded by Dinah Washington]. On After hours with Miss D [CD]. Markham, ON: Polygram. (2004)


News Broadcasts


On TV:

In-text paraphrase: (Zinck, 2019). 
In-text quote: (Zinck, 2019). 
​Reference entry:   

Zinck, D. (Executive Producer). (2019). Global News Edmonton [Television Series]. Edmonton, AB: Global Television Network. 



In-text paraphrase: (CBC News, 2017).
In-text quote: (CBC News, 2017, 1:02).
Reference entry:

CBC News. (2017, October 25). How much do refugees and immigrants get in social assistance? [Video file]. Retrieved from 




*General guidelines:

  • If the author and publisher are the same, include "Author" in place of the publisher to avoid duplication.
  • If location information is not available on the pamphlet, use Google to find out where the organization is based. 
In-text paraphrase: (Heart and Stroke Foundation Canada, 2017). 
In-text quote: (Heart and Stroke Foundation Canada, 2017, p. 2). 
​Reference entry:   

Heart and Stroke Foundation Canada. (2017). Learn the signs of stroke [Pamphlet]. Ottawa, ON: Author.  


Podcasts - Audio & Video

*General guidelines:

  • The producer(s), presenter(s), or director(s) can be listed as the author(s) for the podcast. Include the roles of the contributors in brackets after each name in the author list (e.g. Presenter, Producer, Director). For contributors with more than one role, use a slash to list the roles e.g. (Presenter/Director). 
  • Differentiate between audio and video podcasts using the format description, e.g. [Audio podcast], [Video podcast]. 
In-text paraphrase: (Zomparelli and Lidman, 2018).
In-text quote: (Zomparelli and Lidman, 2018, 04:38).
Reference entry:

Zomparelli, D. (Presenter/Producer), Lidman, G. (Producer). (2018, December 17). I'm Afraid That [Audio podcast].  Retrieved from 



*General guidelines:

  • Include composer(s) as the author(s) and any other prominent contributors with roles in brackets as appropriate.
  • Include a format description that best describes the score following the title, e.g. [Vocal score] [Orchestral score].
In-text: (Gilbert & Sullivan, 1942).
Reference entry:

Gilbert, W. S. (Librettist), & Sullivan, A. (Composer). (1942). The pirates of Penzance, or, the slave of duty [Vocal score]. New York, NY: G. Schirmer.


Original score:

In text: (Ellington, 1963).
Reference entry:

Ellington, D. (1963). Bonga (empty town blues) [Full score]. Van Nuys, CA: Alfred/Belwin Jazz.


Transcribed score:

In text: (Ellington, 2014).
Reference entry:

Ellington, D. (2014). Bonga (empty town blues) [Full score]. (D. Berger, transcriber). Van Nuys, CA: Alfred/Belwin Jazz.


Song Lyrics

*The songwriter(s) should be listed as the author(s), and the recording artist is included in square brackets following the title:

In-text paraphrase: (Brown, Frost, Hogan, Mike Will Made It, & Beyoncé, 2016).
In-text quote: (Brown, Frost, Hogan, Mike Will Made It, & Beyoncé, 2016, 0:38).
Reference entry:

Brown, K., Frost, J., Hogan, A., Mike Will Made It, & Beyoncé. (2016). Formation [Recorded by Beyoncé]. On Lemonade [CD]. New York, NY: Parkwood Entertainment.


Streaming Audio Services


In-text paraphrase: (Stratton, 2018).
In-text quote: (Stratton, 2018, 3:09).
Reference entry:

Stratton, J. (2018). Ace of aces. [Recorded by The Fearless Flyers]. On The Fearless Flyers [Streaming audio]. Retrieved from


Streaming Video Services

*General guidelines:

  • If citing a specific episode from a TV or documentary series, include executive producers following the title of the episode, and then the series title as shown.
  • If the episode is on a website that requires users to login, include only a link to the homepage.
In-text paraphrase: (Benjamin, Yorkey, Asher, Sheff, & Yu, 2016).
In-text quote: (Benjamin, Yorkey, Asher, Sheff, & Yu, 2016, 06:32).
​Reference entry:

Benjamin, E., Yorkey, B., Asher, J., & Sheff, N. (Writers), & Yu, J. (Director). (2016). Tape 6, side b. [Television series episode]. In B. Yorkey, D. Son, T. McCarthy, J. Gorman Wettels, S. Golin, M. Sugar, & ... K. Laiblin (Executive Producers), 13 reasons why. Retrieved from 



*If including a table from another source, add a note underneath the table as well as a reference entry at the end of your paper. 


Table 1

Animal Preferences by Number of Responses

Note. Reprinted from "A study of favourite animals," by Smith, J., 2018, Animal Journal, 3(1), p. 6.

Reference entry:  

Smith, J. (2018). A study of favourite animals. Animal Journal, 3(1), 4-16. Retrieved from 



With a DOI:

In-text paraphrase: (Erickson, 2018).
In-text quote: (Erickson, 2018, p. 81).
Reference entry:

Erickson, N. (2018). The other 'librarian': Work identity of library paraprofessionals from preparation to practice (Doctoral dissertation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada). doi:10.7939/R38W38J4V


Without a DOI:

In-text paraphrase: (Lindsey, 2018).
In-text quote: (Lindsey, 2018, p. 81).
Reference entry:

Lindsey, L. (2018). Health within illness: Experiences of the chronically ill/disabled (Doctoral dissertation, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada). Retrieved from


TV Episodes

In-text paraphrase: (Podeswa, Benioff, & Weiss, 2017)
In-text quote:  (PodeswaBenioff, & Weiss, 2017, 12:31)

​Reference entry: 

Podeswa, J. (Director), Benioff, D. (Writer), & Weiss, D.B. (Writer). (2017, July 16). Dragonstone [Television series episode]. In Benioff, D. & Weiss, D.B. (Executive Producers), Game of Thrones. New York, NY, HBO. 


Works of Art


Original work:

In-text: (da Vinci, 1503).
Reference entry:

da Vinci, L. (1503). Mona Lisa [Painting]. Paris, France: Louvre Museum.


Image of the original work from a database:

In-text: (da Vinci, 1503).
Reference entry:

da Vinci, L. (1503). Mona Lisa [Painting]. Retrieved from ARTstor.


YouTube Videos

*Include the name of the account owner, if given, followed by the username in square brackets:

In-text paraphrase: (Trudeau, 2018).
In-text quote: (Trudeau, 2018, 4:13).
Reference entry:

Trudeau, J. [pmocpm]. (2018, October 23). Prime Minister Trudeau announces federal pollution pricing system [Video file]. Retrieved from


*If no person’s name is given, only include the account or screen name:

In-text paraphrase: (CBC News, 2017).
In-text quote: (CBC News, 2017, 1:02).
Reference entry:

CBC News. (2017, October 25). How much do refugees and immigrants get in social assistance? [Video file]. Retrieved from 




* General Guidelines:

  • If publication year is not available, add n.d. for no date.
  • If the author and publisher are the same, include "Author" in place of the publisher to avoid duplication.
In-text paraphrase: (Nault, n.d.).
In-text quote: (Nault, n.d., p. 6).
Reference entry:

Nault, T. (n.d.). Wakey wakey for eggs n bac'y [Zine]. Edmonton, AB: Author.

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