Whenever you refer to information produced by someone else, you need to cite the original source in the text of your paper and in a reference list at the end of your paper. This allows the reader to follow up and learn more, while also giving credit to the author and avoiding plagiarism.
APA in-text citation guidelines are detailed below.
|Paraphrase||There was no relationship found (Nkumbe, 2016).|
|Paraphrase, author in text||Nkumbe (2016) found that . . .|
|Quote||As she stated, ". . ." (Lopez, 2015, p. 15).|
|Quote, author in text||Lopez (2015) states that ". . ." (p. 15).|
|Quote from a website (use paragraph numbers)||As she stated, ". . ." (Lopez, 2014, para. 5).|
|Two authors||Nothing was proven (Nkumbe & Lopez, 2016).|
|Two authors, in text||Nkumbe and Lopez (2016) found that . . .|
Note: According to APA, including a page number when paraphrasing is optional. However, it is best to check with your course instructor as some require page numbers. If so, follow the instructions in the next section below for quoting information.
When you write information from someone else’s work out in your own words, also known as paraphrasing, cite the last name of the author followed by the year of publication:
If referring to the same work multiple times in the same paragraph, only cite the source as many times as needed to ensure that it is clear to the reader where the information came from:
If quoting information directly from a source, include a page number at the end of each quote:
If a quotation appears on multiple pages, include pp. before the page numbers:
Quotes longer than 40 words start on their own line, indented, and with quotation marks omitted:
As one informant related:
When I recognized that it was very inappropriate and disrespectful, I went to my manager to complain but instead of supporting me she humiliated me more. I was told that this is my reality and wherever I go I will have to face this. She said there is no need to take it seriously, as she is sure they didn’t mean what they said. (Dhengal, 2017, p. 133)
Two authors, use an “and” between last names, or an “&” symbol if the citation is in parentheses at the end of a sentence:
Three to five authors, include all the first time you reference the work. In subsequent references, just include the first author followed by “et al.”:
Six or more authors, only cite the first author followed by “et al.”:
If citing two or more works by different authors that discuss the same topic or idea, list them in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author appearing on each work, and separate each one with a semicolon:
If citing works by the same author written in the same year, assign an a, b, c, and so on along with the publication year in both your in-text citation and reference list entry:
Whenever possible, find the original source of the information you are citing. If this is not possible, reference the original work and the work you are using as follows:
*Only include the work you are using (e.g., Reynolds, 2018) in your reference entry.
Use a section heading, if available, and a paragraph number:
For long headings, shorten it to the first few words in quotation marks:
If no page numbers or headings, count down and provide a paragraph number:
For audiovisual materials (e.g., videos, podcasts) include a timestamp indicating when a quote begins:
For sources that do not include a person as the author, use the corporate author (i.e., an organization, government, or agency serving as author):
For sources without an author or corporate author, start the citation with the title:
If no date is provided, include (n.d.) in place of a date:
When citing a personal communication (e.g., an interview, a lecture, an email), the citation occurs within the text of your paper, but is not included in your reference list since this is not retrievable information: