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ASA Citation Guide (6th Ed.)

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About Reference Lists

If you cite information in the text of your paper, you also need to include a more detailed reference entry for that work in a reference list at the end of your paper.

General rules are demonstrated below.

Author Information

Reference lists should be arranged alphabetically by the first author's last name for each entry. List each author in the order that they appear in the work. Include first names and initials provided.

One author:

Lunny, Allyson M. 2017. Debating Hate Crime: Language, Legislatures, and the Law in Canada. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

 

Two to ten authors, list them all:

Livingstone, D. W., Katina Pollock, and Milosh Raykov. 2014. "Family Binds and Glass Ceilings: Women Managers’ Promotion Limits in a ‘Knowledge Economy.’" Critical Sociology 42(1):145-166. http://doi.org/10.1177/0896920514532663

 

More then ten authors, only list the first seven followed by et.al.:

Arnone, Danilo, Dominic Job, Sudhakar Selvaraj, Osamu Abe, Francesco Amico, Yugi Cheng, Sean J. Colloby, et.al. 2016. "Computational Meta‚ÄźAnalysis of Statistical Parametric Maps in Major Depression." Human Brain Mapping 37(4):1393-1404. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.23108

 

Multiple works by the same author, assign an a, b, c, and so on to works published in the same year, and list other works oldest to newest:

Goffman, Erving. 1969aStrategic Interaction. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Goffman, Erving. 1969bWhere the Action Is: Three Essays. London, England: Allen Lane.

Goffman, Erving. 1981. Forms of Talk. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Date of Publication

Include the year of publication following author information: 

Sunga, Seetal. 2017. "Dealing with Oppression: Indigenous Relations with the State in Canada." Ethics and Social Welfare 11(2), 135-148. http://doi.org/10.1080/17496535.2017.1293118


If no date is given, include (N.d.) in place of a date:

Canadian Association of Research Libraries. N.d. "Repositories in Canada." https://www.carl-abrc.ca/advancing-research/institutional-repositories/repos-in-canada

Titles of Works

Titles of works come after the publication date.

Capitalize All Main Words in the Titles of Works (also known as title case):

Sunga, Seetal. 2017. "Dealing with Oppression: Indigenous Relations with the State in Canada." Ethics and Social Welfare 11(2):135-148. https://doi.org/10.1080/17496535.2017.1293118


Titles of works that are published as complete works, like book titles, journal titles, or newspaper titles, should be italicized:

Lunny, Allyson M. 2017. Debating Hate Crime: Language, Legislatures, and the Law in Canada. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

Publication and Retrieval Information

Publisher Information


Publisher information such as the name of a journal/issue/volume, website or book publisher, follows the title of a work in a citation.

For books/eBooks, include the place of publication (city and province/state abbreviation if not widely known) and publisher. If multiple places are listed, only include the first one:

Lunny, Allyson M. 2017. Debating Hate Crime: Language, Legislatures, and the Law in Canada. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

 

For books/eBooks published outside of North America, include the city and country:

Goffman, Erving. 1969. Where the Action Is: Three Essays. London, England: Allen Lane.


Retrieval Information


Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs)


Include a DOI at the end of a citation, if provided. These permanent links are commonly noted on the first page of journal articles, and in the front matter of eBooks.

Present DOIs as links starting with https://doi.org/ . . . (see example below), or followed by doi: (e.g., doi:10.1080/17496535.2017.1293118).

Sunga, Seetal. 2017. Dealing with Oppression: Indigenous Relations with the State in Canada. Ethics and Social Welfare11(2):135-148. https://doi.org/10.1080/17496535.2017.1293118


Note:
 Remove ezproxy.macewan.ca if it shows up in a DOI link, i.e. https://doi.org.ezproxy.macewan.ca/10...
 

No DOI? 

If available online without a DOI, include a link to the source:

Newton, Paula, and Madeline Holcombe. 2020. "Canada Wants National Sick Leave Plan in Place for Second Wave of the Coronavirus Pandemic." CNN, May 26. https://cnn.com/2020/05/26/americas/canada-coronavirus-national-sick-leave/index.html

 

If not available online, do not include a link:

Frenzel, Erica Davis, Kendra N. Bowen, Jason D. Spraitz, James H. Bowers, and Shannon Phaneuf. 2014. Understanding Collateral Consequences of Registry Laws: An Examination of the Perceptions of Sex Offender Registrants. Justice Policy Journal 11(2):1-22.

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