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ASA Citation Guide (6th Ed.)


Everything Else

Blog Post


In-text: (Cournoyer 2019).
Reference entry:

Cournoyer, Dave. 2019. "This is Sad. Alberta’s Leaders’ Debate Remarkable for Being Horribly Boring." - Alberta Politics, blog, April 4.


Data and Statistics

Online dataset from a database with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

In-text: In-text: (Gurr 2006).
Reference entry:

Gurr, T. R. 2006. "Polity II: Political Structures and Regime Change, 1800-1986." Ann Arbor, MI: Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2006-01-18.


Online dataset without a DOI:

In-text: (Statistics Canada 2011).
Reference entry:

Statistics Canada. 2011. "Preliminary Dataset on Confirmed Cases of COVID-19, Public Health Agency of Canada."


Government Reports

Institutional author:

​​In-text: (Department of Justice 2019:9).
Reference entry:

Department of Justice. 2019. "Final report on the Review of Canada’s Criminal Justice System."


Individual and institutional authors: 

​​In-text: (O’Donnell, Wendt, and National Association of Friendship Centres 2017:8).
Reference entry:

O’Donnell, V., Wendt, M, and National Association of Friendship Centres. 2017. "Aboriginal Seniors in Population Centres in Canada."


Knowledge Keepers & Indigenous Elders


*General guidelines:

  • MacEwan Library recommends that personal communications with a Knowledge Keeper or Indigenous Elder be cited in-text and in the reference list.
  • If you would like to approach a Knowledge Keeper or Indigenous Elder for teachings, remember to follow protocol. If you are unsure what their protocol is, ask them ahead of time.

Reference entry template to follow: 

Last name, First initial., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory, if applicable. Where they live, if applicable. Topic/subject of communication, if applicable, personal communication. Date.

In-text: Through our discussion, I learned that ". . ." (Cardinal 2004).

Reference entry:

Cardinal, W. Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching, personal communication. April 4, 2004.


This approach was developed by Lorisia MacLeod and NorQuest College Indigenous Student Centre staff and shared on the NorQuest College Library website in the spirit of wahkôhtowin and reconciliation. Adapted under a CC BY-NC license.


Legal Materials

Legislation and statutes:

*Only include section numbers from online sources without page numbers in-text if your instructor requests them.

In-text: (Government of Canada 2022:section 48). 
Reference entry:

Government of Canada. 2022. "Canada Labour Code, RSC 1985, c. L-2."



* Case names are italicized.

In-text: (MacDonald v. Canada 2020:section 17). 
Reference entry:

MacDonald v. Canada, 2020 SCC 6.


Podcast Episodes

*General guidelines:

  • The host(s) or executive producer(s) can be listed as the author(s) for the podcast. 
  • Include a timestamp if quoting from the podcast.
  • Include a URL at the end if available online. Omit a URL if only available through an app.
In-text: (McGregor 2020:10:15).
Reference entry:

McGregor, Hannah. 2020. "Saying No! Again! Forever!" November 20 in Secret Feminist Agenda, podcast, 13:31.


Social Media (Twitter, Instagram, Facebook, TikTok)


Facebook example:

In-text: (Earth's General Store 2018).
Reference entry:

Earth's General Store. 2018. "Tomorrow is #WasteFreeWednesday. We have a mountain of plastic waste already fill up our world." Facebook, October 23.


Instagram example:

In-text: (Ocasio-Cortez 2019).
Reference entry:

Ocasio-Cortez, Alexandria (@aoc). 2019. "Chairman Elijah Cummings was a hero. Just watch any video of him in any hearing and you will understand." Instagram, October 18.


Twitter example:

In-text: (Notley 2017).
Reference entry:

Notley, Rachel. (@RachelNotley). 2017. "Raising Alberta’s minimum wage to $13.60 will boost the spending power of low-income people, which supports Alberta’s economic recovery." Twitter, September 30, 8:26 a.m.


TikTok example:

*Include a timestamp if quoting from the video.

In-text: (World Health Organization 2020:00:34).
Reference entry:

World Health Organization (@WHO). 2020. "Building back better from #covid19 means building back greener." TikTok, May 29, 00:56.


Song Lyrics & Music Recordings


*General guidelines:

  • Include a timestamp if quoting from the music lyrics.
  • Include a URL at the end only if that is the only place a song can be located, e.g. an independent artists' SoundCloud account.
In-text: (Beyoncé 2016:0:38).
Reference entry:

Beyoncé. 2016. "Formation." Lemonade. Parkwood, CA: Columbia.



With a DOI:

In-text: (Erickson 2018:45).
Reference entry:

Erickson, Norene. 2018. "The Other 'Librarian': Work Identity of Library Paraprofessionals from Preparation to Practice." PhD Dissertation, Department of Educational Policy Studies.


Without a DOI:

In-text: (Lindsey 1993:64).
Reference entry:

Lindsey, L. (1993). "Health Within Illness: Experiences of the Chronically Ill/Disabled." PhD Dissertation, Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Victoria.


Streaming Videos (e.g., YouTube)

*Include a timestamp if quoting from the video.

In-text: (Trudeau 2018:5:13)
Reference entry:

Trudeau, J. (@pmocpm). 2018. "Prime Minister Trudeau Announces Federal Pollution Pricing System." Produced by Justin Trudeau – Prime Minister of Canada, October 23. Video, 13:34.





* General guidelines:

  • If publication year is not available, add N.d. for no date.
  • If self-published, use n.p. for no publisher.
In-text: (Nault N.d.:6).
Reference entry:

Nault, T. (N.d.). Wakey wakey for eggs n bac'y. Edmonton, AB: n.p.

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