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Writing and Learning Services: APA Guide


Books: General Rules

  • Authors are listed by their last name, followed by the initial of their first name and, if given, the initial of their middle name. 
      • e.g. Johanson, W. C., & Anderson, M. 
  • Always write authors' names in the same order in which they are listed on the source. 
  • Use an ampersand (&) before the last author's name if there are multiple authors.
  • If there is no author, begin the entry with the source's title. 
  • Write the most recent publication year available. 
  • Italicize the book's title and, if available, the book's subtitle.
  • Capitalize only the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle, and any proper nouns. Everything else in the title should be lowercase. 
  • Separate the title and subtitle with a colon. 
  • Write the edition, if available. If no edition is listed, put a period after the subtitle or title and then write the place of publication or, for electronic versions of books, the retrieval information (see guidelines below). 
  • Write the city of publication and the abbreviation of the state or province. If more than one place is given, use the first one listed. (For electronic versions of books, see guidelines below.)
  • Write the name of the organization, association, or university press that published the source. (For electronic versions of books, see guidelines below.) 

See our Reference Entries: General Rules section for more information about how to reference authors, dates, titles, and publication or retrieval information. 

Book (Print Version)

Basic Template

Author, A. (date). Book title: Book subtitle (edition). Place: Publisher



Rooke, C. (2004). The clear path: A guide to writing English essays (3rd ed.). Toronto, ON:

Thomson Nelson. 

Book (Electronic Version)

Basic Template

Author, A. (date). Book title: Book subtitle (edition) [version used]. Retrieved from



Hershatter, G. (2007). Women in China's long twentieth century [eBrary Reader version].

   Retrieved from

Article or Chapter in an Edited Book (Print Version)

Basic Template

Author, A. (date). Title of chapter or article. In E. Editor (Ed.), Book title: Book

subtitle (edition, page numbers). Place: Publisher. 



Stenson, R. J., & Laustensen, J. L. (2005). Racial and ethnic disparities in

crime and criminal justice in China. In M. Sanchez & J. G. Ramirez (Eds.), 

Ethnicity and enforcement: Comparative and cross-national perspectives 

(2nd ed., pp. 311-374). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 

Article or Chapter in an Edited Book (Electronic Version)

Basic Template

Author, A. (date). Chapter title: Chapter subtitle. In E. Editor (Ed.), Book title: Book subtitle

(edition, page numbers) [version used]. Retrieved from www.ebook-version-



Bekker, H. (2009). Using decision-making theory to inform clinical practice. In G. Elwyn &

A. Edwards (Eds.), Shared decision-making in health care: Achieving evidence-

based patient choice (pp. 45-51) [eBook Collection version]. Retrieved from

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