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APA Citation Guide (6th Ed.)


About Reference Lists

If you cite information in the text of your paper, you also need to include a more detailed reference entry for that work in a reference list at the end of your paper.

General rules are demonstrated below.

Author Information

References should be arranged alphabetically by author last name for each entry. List authors in each entry in the order that they appear in the work. Use initials for any first and middle names.

One author:

Lunny, A. M. (2017). Debating hate crime: Language, legislatures, and the law in Canada. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.


Two to seven authors, list them all:

Livingstone, D. W., Pollock, K., & Raykov, M. (2014). Family binds and glass ceilings: Women managers’ promotion limits in a ‘knowledge economy.’ Critical Sociology42(1), 145-166.


Eight or more authors, only list the first six, . . . and the last author listed:

Arnone, D., Job, D., Selvaraj, S., Abe, O., Amico, F., Cheng, Y.,  . . . McIntosh, A. M. (2016). Computational meta‐analysis of statistical parametric maps in major depression. Human Brain Mapping37(4), 1393-1404. doi:10.1002/hbm.23108


Multiple works by the same author, assign an a, b, c, and so on to works published in the same year:

Goffman, E. (1969a). Strategic interaction. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Goffman, E. (1969b)Where the action is: Three essays. London, United Kingdom: Allen Lane.

Goffman, E. (1981). Forms of talk. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.


For sources with no author, use the corporate author (i.e., an organization, government, or agency serving as author):

CBC News. (2017, October 25). How much do refugees and immigrants get in social assistance? [Video file]. Retrieved from


For sources with no author or corporate author, start the citation with the title:

Homeless veterans in focus. (2017, May 9). Thunder Bay Chronicle Journal. Retrieved from

Date of Publication

Include the year of publication in brackets following author information: 

Sunga, S. (2017). Dealing with oppression: Indigenous relations with the state in Canada. Ethics & Social Welfare, 11(2), 135-148. doi:10.1080/17496535.2017.1293118


For websites, newspapers, or magazines, include (year, month, day), if provided: 

Homeless veterans in focus. (2017, May 9). Thunder Bay Chronicle Journal. Retrieved from


If no date is given, include (n.d.) in place of a date:

Canadian Association of Research Libraries. (n.d.). Repositories in Canada. Retrieved from

Titles of Works

Only capitalize the first word of titles, the first word of any sub-titles, and any proper nouns:

Sunga, S. (2017). Dealing with oppression: Indigenous relations with the state in Canada. Ethics & Social Welfare11(2), 135-148. doi:10.1080/17496535.2017.1293118

Format Descriptions

Describe the format in square brackets following the title only if the source you are citing is something out of the ordinary, e.g. [Blog post] [Infographic] [Facebook status update] [Tweet] [Video file]

​Polley, S. (Writer & Director). (2012). Stories we tell [DVD]. Toronto, ON: Mongrel Media.

Publication or Retrieval Information

Include a digital object identifier (DOI) if provided. 

NOTE: Including the DOI in the form of a link (i.e., is acceptable, however, do not include should it appear in that link (i.e., ...). 

DOIs are commonly noted on the first page of journal articles, and in the front matter of eBooks:

Sunga, S. (2017). Dealing with oppression: Indigenous relations with the state in Canada. Ethics & Social Welfare11(2), 135-148. doi:10.1080/17496535.2017.1293118


For subscription content (e.g., from a library database) without a DOI include "Retrieved from" and a link to the publisher's homepage with the hyperlink removed:

Frenzel, E. D., Bowen, K. N., Spraitz, J. D., Bowers, J. H., & Phaneuf, S. (2014). Understanding collateral consequences of registry laws: An examination of the perceptions of sex offender registrants. Justice Policy Journal11(2), 1-22. Retrieved from


 If freely available online without a DOI, include "Retrieved from" and a link to the source with the hyperlink removed. (Pro tip: If you are worried about a link changing over time, try creating a permanent link using the Internet Archive's Save Page Now tool.)

Department of Justice Canada. (2017, August 8). The youth criminal justice act summary and background. Retrieved from


For physical sources, include the place of publication (city and province/state abbreviation) and publisher. If multiple places are listed, only include the first one:

Lunny, A. M. (2017). Debating hate crime: Language, legislatures, and the law in Canada. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.


If the physical source was published outside of North America, include the city and country:

Haith, M. (2018). Understanding mental health practice. London, United Kingdom: Learning Matters.


If a physical source's author and publisher are the same, include "Author" in place of the publisher to avoid duplication:

Nault, T. (n.d.). Wakey wakey for eggs n bac'y [Zine]. Edmonton, AB: Author.

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