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Writing and Learning Services: APA Guide

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Websites and Other Web Documents

General Rules

  • Authors are listed by their last name, followed by the initial of their first name and, if given, the initial of their middle name.
      • e.g. Johanson, W. C., & Anderson, M. 
  • Always write authors' names in the same order in which they are listed on the source.
  • Write the name of the organization, association, or company if the author is not a person.
      • e.g. Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada
                Statistics Canada 
  • Use an ampersand (&) before the last author's name if there are multiple authors.
  • If there is no author (either a person or an organization), begin the entry with the article's title.
  • Write the most recent date modified or updated. Include a year, month, and day, if available.
  • If the source is a web page or other document that is published as part of a larger work or website, write the title and subtitle, if available, in plain font. Capitalize only the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle, and any proper nouns in the title or subtitle.
  • If the source is a PDF report, brochure, government document, or other work that is published independently, write the title and subtitle, if available, in italics. Capitalize only the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle, and any proper nouns in the title or subtitle.
  • Provide a catalog number, if available. For example, government documents often have catalog numbers.
  • Write a description of form in square brackets
      • e.g. [Report]
                [Web page]
                [Blog post]
  • Write "Retrieved from" and then the name of the website, followed by the direct URL of the source if the website name is not mentioned as either the author or title.
  • Write "Retrieved from" and then the direct URL of the source if the website name is mentioned as either the author or title. 

  

See our Reference Entries: General Rules section for more information about how to reference authors, dates, titles, and publication or retrieval information. 

  


Web Source Published as Part of a Larger Work (Web Page, Blog Post, Forum Message, etc.) (Titles are written in plain font.)

  

Basic Template #1 (website name not mentioned as either the author or title)

Author, A. (date). Title of document [Description of form]. Retrieved from Website name:

http://www.websiteaddress.com

Example

Writing and Learning Services. (2013). Avoiding plagiarism [Web page]. Retrieved from

MacEwan University website: http://macewan.ca/wcm/StudentServices/

WritingandLearningServices/AvoidingPlagiarism/index.htm

  

Basic Template #2 (website name mentioned as either the author or title)

Author, A. (date). Title of document [Description of form]. Retrieved from

http://www.websiteaddress.com

Example

Statistics Canada. (2012, October 03). Undergraduate tuition fees for full time

Canadian students, by discipline, by province (Alberta) [Table]. Retrieved from

http://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/educ50j-eng.htm

  


Web Source Published as an Independent Document (Report, Brochure, Government Document, etc.) (Titles are written in italics.)

 

Basic Template #1 (website name not mentioned as either the author or title)

Author, A. (date). Title of document [Description of form]. Retrieved from Website name:

http://www.websiteaddress.com

Example

Uppal, S., & LaRochelle-Côté, S. (2013, April). Insights on Canadian society: Employment

changes across industries during the downturn and recovery (Catalogue

No. 75-006-X) [PDF]. Retrieved from Statistics Canada website:

http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-006-x/2013001/article/11775-eng.pdf

  

Basic Template #2  (website name mentioned as either the author or title)

Author, A. (date). Title of document [Description of form]. Retrieved from

http://www.websiteaddress.com

Example

Canadian Association of Social Workers. (2004, December). Writer's guide:

Canadian Social Work Journal online [PDF]. Retrieved from http://www.casw-

acts.ca/sites/default/files/attachements/CASW%20Writers%20Guide.pdf


 Web Sources with Elements Missing

 

If any elements are missing from a website, follow these guidelines. Be sure to consult the corresponding Reference Entries section above and the citation guidelines for web sources for clarification on how to write authors' names, whether to capitalize or italicize titles, which locator to use if there are no page numbers, etc. 

  

Author is missing: Put the title in the author position

Title [Description of form]. (date). Retrieved from http://www.website.com

 

Date is missing: Write (n.d) in place of a date.

Author, A. (n.d.). Title [Description of form]. Retrieved from http://www.website.com

  

Title is missing: Omit a title, but still include a description of form

Author, A. (date). [Description of form]. Retrieved from http://www.website.com

A Note About Missing Elements  

Typically, credible sources will contain all the information needed to cite them using the templates provided in this guide. If your instructor requires you to use credible or scholarly sources only, we recommend that you consult the Library's resource, How Do I Find and Evaluate Information?, particularly if your source is missing key elements such as an author, date, or title. 

 

Journal Article (Electronic Version)

General Rules

  • Authors are listed by their last name, followed by the initial of their first name and, if given, the initial of their middle name.
    • e.g. Johanson, W. C., & Anderson, M. 
  • Always write authors' names in the same order in which they are listed on the source. 
  • Use an ampersand (&) before the last author's name if there are multiple authors.
  • If there is no author, begin the entry with the article's title. 
  • Write the most recent publication year available. 
  • Write the month or season of publication ONLY IF you are missing either the volume number or issue number. 
  • Write the article title in plain font. Capitalize only the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle, and any proper nouns in the title or subtitle.
  • Write the journal name in italics. Capitalize all main words. 
  • Include a volume number and an issue number. The volume number should be in italics; the issue number should be in parentheses.
  • Write the page numbers of the article. 
  • Provide a doi number, if available. 
  • If a doi number is not available, provide the URL for the home page of the journal. (NOTE: Do not provide the direct link to the article. You will have to use a search engine such as Google or the Library's detailed record of the source to locate the journal's home page.)
  • If using the journal's home page as your retrieval information, remove the hyperlink

See our Reference Entries: General Rules section for more information about how to reference authors, dates, titles, and publication or retrieval information. 

  


 

Journal Article With a DOI Number

Basic Template


Author, A. (date). Article title: Article subtitle. Journal Name, volume(issue), pages. doi:

digital object identifier number. 

Example


Landsbury, J. K. (2007). Community efforts proven to increase empathy for the

homeless. Community Network Journal, 13(3), 233-254. doi:10.198/005-

9852.45.3.447

  


Journal Article Without a DOI Number

Basic Template


Author, A. (date). Article title: Article subtitle. Journal Name, volume(issue), pages.

Retrieved from www.home-page-of-journal.org

Example


Hall, K., & Miller, D. (2009). Citation software: Use with caution. Journal of

Technology Research, 17(2), 344-356. Retrieved from http://www.jtr.org

Magazine or Newspaper Article (Electronic Version)

General Rules

  • Authors are listed by their last name, followed by the initial of their first name and, if given, the initial of their middle name.
    • e.g. Johanson, W. C., & Anderson, M. 
  • Always write authors' names in the same order in which they are listed on the source. 
  • Use an ampersand (&) before the last author's name if there are multiple authors.
  • If there is no author, begin the entry with the article's title. 
  • Write the most recent publication date available; include a year, month and day, if available. 
  • Write the article title in plain font. Capitalize only the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle, and any proper nouns in the title or subtitle.
  • Write the magazine or newspaper name in italics. Capitalize all main words. 
  • Provide the URL of the home page of the newspaper or magazine. (NOTE: Do not provide the direct link to the article. You will have to use a search engine such as Google or the Library's detailed record of the source to locate the newspaper or magazine's home page.)
  • If using the newspaper or magazine's home page as your retrieval information, remove the hyperlink. 

See our Reference Entries: General Rules section for more information about how to reference authors, dates, titles, and publication or retrieval information. 

   


Newspaper or Magazine Article with Author Identified (Electronic Version)

Basic Template


Author, A. (date). Article title: Article subtitle. Name of Newspaper or Magazine. Retrieved

from www.newspaper-or-magazine-home-page.ca

Example


Hampton, S. (2008, February 28). The Bluenose sails again. Halifax Herald. Retrieved

from http://www.halifaxherald.com

  


Newspaper or Magazine Article with Author Not Identified (Electronic Version)

Basic Template


Article title. (date). Title of Newspaper or Magazine. Retrieved from www.newspaper-or-

magazine-home-page.ca

Example

Alberta to restrict building on floodways in new law. (2013, September 24). CBC News.

Retrieved from www.cbc.ca

Books (Electronic Version)

General Rules

  • Authors are listed by their last name, followed by the initial of their first name and, if given, the initial of their middle name. 
    • e.g. Johanson, W. C., & Anderson, M. 
  • Always write authors' names in the same order in which they are listed on the source. 
  • Use an ampersand (&) before the last author's name if there are multiple authors.
  • If there is no author, begin the entry with the source's title. 
  • Write the most recent publication year available. 
  • If referencing an article or chapter in an edited e-book, write the article or chapter title in plain font. Capitalize only the first letter of the title, the first letter of the subtitle, and any proper nouns in the subtitle. Also include the editor's or editors' name(s). (See example below.)
  • Italicize the book's title and, if available, the book's subtitle.
  • Capitalize only the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle, and any proper nouns. Everything else in the title should be lowercase. 
  • Separate the title and subtitle with a colon. 
  • Write the edition, if available. If no edition is listed, put a period after the subtitle or title and then write the place of publication or, for electronic versions of books, the retrieval information (see guidelines below). 
  • If referencing an article or chapter in an edited e-book, write the page numbers.
  • Write the name of the electronic version in square brackets 
    • e.g. [eBrary Reader version]
  • Provide the URL for the home page of the electronic version. 

See our Reference Entries: General Rules section for more information about how to reference authors, dates, titles, and publication or retrieval information. 

  


 E-Books (Same Author(s) for the Whole Book)

Basic Template

Author, A. (date). Book title: Book subtitle (edition) [version used]. Retrieved from

www.ebook-version-homepage-url.com  

Example

Hershatter, G. (2007). Women in China's long twentieth century [eBrary Reader version].

Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/macewan

  


Article or Chapter in an Edited E-Book (Different Author(s) for Each Chapter or Article)

  

Basic Template

Author, A. (date). Chapter title: Chapter subtitle. In E. Editor (Ed.), Book title: Book subtitle

(edition, page numbers) [version used]. Retrieved from www.ebook-version-

homepage-url.com

Example

Bekker, H. (2009). Using decision-making theory to inform clinical practice. In G. Elwyn &

A. Edwards (Eds.), Shared decision-making in health care: Achieving evidence-

based patient choice (pp. 45-51) [eBook Collection version]. Retrieved from 

http://ehis.ebscohost.com

Reference Works (Electronic Version)

General Rules

  • Authors are listed by their last name, followed by the initial of their first name and, if given, the initial of their middle name.
    • e.g. Johanson, W. C., & Anderson, M. 
  • Always write authors' names in the same order in which they are listed on the source. 
  • Use an ampersand (&) before the last author's name if there are multiple authors.
  • If there is no author, begin with the encyclopedia or dictionary entry's title. 
  • Write the most recent publication year available. If using an electronic version, provide the most recent updated or modified date. 
  • Identify the editor(s), if available. 
  • Write the encyclopedia or dictionary entry title in plain font. Capitalize only the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle, and any proper nouns in the title or subtitle.
  • Write the encyclopedia's or dictionary's name in italics. Capitalize only the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle, and any proper nouns in the title or subtitle. 
  • Include a volume number or an edition number, if available. When writing volume numbers for encyclopedias and dictionaries, write Vol.  before the number. 
  • Write the direct URL for the entry 
  • Remove hyperlinks

 

See our Reference Entries: General Rules section for more information about how to reference authors, dates, titles, and publication or retrieval information. 

  


  

Encyclopedia or Dictionary Entry With Author Identified (Electronic Version)

Basic Template

Author, A. (date). Title of entry. In E. Editor (Ed.), Title of encyclopedia or

dictionary (Volume or edition, pages). Retrieved from www.direct-

url.com

Example

Khan, M. (2011). Bipolar disorder. In B. Cohen (Ed.), Encyclopedia of

psychiatric disorders (Vol. 1, pp. 121-135). Retrieved from

www.encyclopedia-of-psychiatry-online.org 


  

Encyclopedia or Dictionary Entry With Author Not Identified (Electronic Version) 

Basic Template

Title of entry. (date). In E. Editor (Ed.), Title of encyclopedia or dictionary 

(Volume or edition, pages). Retrieved from www.direct-url.com

Example

Schizophrenia. (2013). In Merriam-Webster's online dictionary (11th ed.).

Retrieved from http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/schizophrenia

  

Audiovisual Media (Electronic Version)

Video Online, Not Part of a Series: General Rules

  • List the main contributors. It is not necessary to list all contributors; list only the most prominent ones. These may be the writer(s), director(s) or producer(s) of the work. Contributors' last names are listed first, followed by the initials of their first names and, if given, the initials of their middle names. In brackets, write the contributors' title(s). 
    • e.g. Rushdie, S. (Writer), & Coppola, F. F. (Producer & Director). 
  • Write the most recent date available. 
  • Write the title of the work in italics. Capitalize only the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle, and any proper nouns in the title or subtitle. 
  • Write a description of form in square brackets. 
    • e.g. [Television series episode]
  • Write the direct URL of the video. 

Basic Template

Contributor, C. (Contributor's title). (date). Title of video [description of form]. Retrieved

from www.direct-url.com

Example


Owen, D. (Writer, Director, & Producer). (1964). Nobody waved good-bye [Film]. Retrieved

from http://www.nfb.ca/film/nobody-waved-good-bye/?hpen=feature_5

  


Video Online, Part of a Series: General Rules

Examples of sources that are part of a series are television episodes, or individual installments of a documentary series. 

  • List the main contributors to the episode. It is not necessary to list all contributors; list only the most prominent ones. These may be the writer(s) or director(s) of the work. Contributors' last names are listed first, followed by the initials of their first names and, if given, the initials of their middle names. In brackets, write the contributors' title(s). 
    • e.g. Rushdie, S. (Writer), & Coppola, F. F. (Director). 
  • Write the most recent date available. 
  • Write the title of the episode in plain font. Capitalize only the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle, and any proper nouns in the title or subtitle. 
  • Write a description of form in square brackets.
    • e.g. [Television series episode]
  • Write the name of the Series Producer(s) or Executive Producer(s).
  • Write the title of the series in italics. Capitalize only the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle, and any proper nouns in the title or subtitle. 
  • Write the direct URL of the video. 

  

Basic Template

Contributor, C. (Contributor's title). (date). Title of episode [description of form]. In E.

Executive Producer (Executive Producer), Title of series. Retrieved from

www.direct-url.com

Example

Philibert, M. (Writer, Producer, & Director), Pednault, M.-C. (Producer), & Nepton-Hotte,

C. (Producer). 8th fire: Whose land is it anyway? [Documentary series episode].

In K. Crichton (Series Producer), S. Dando (Executive Producer), & P. J. Ingles

(Executive Producer), Doc zone. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/player/Shows/

Shows/Doc+Zone/8th+Fire/ID/2215907560/

  


 

YouTube Videos

  • When you create a reference entry for a YouTube video, put the person who posted the video in the author position.
  • On YouTube, users must post under a screen name, which is important for finding the video on YouTube. Sometimes, however, the real name of the person who posted the video is unknown. 
  • When available, provide the author's real name and screen name. If the author's real name is not available, include only the screen name without brackets. 

Template

Author, A. [Screen name]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Description of form]. Retrieved

from http://URL

 

Example 


Frank, T. [College Info Geek]. (2015, January 22). How to study effectively: 8

advanced tips [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?

v=5ad6grll-ak

 

Corresponding in-text citation: (Frank, 2015). When you create the in-text citation, cite by the author name that appears outside of the brackets in the reference entry. 

 


 

Podcast: General Rules

  • Write the speaker's or speakers' name(s). Write each person's last name first, followed by the initial of his or her first name and, if given, middle name. 
    • Ghomeshi, J. 
  • Write the most recent date uploaded, modified, or updated. Include a year, month and day, if available. 
  • Write the title and subtitle of the podcast in italics. Capitalize only the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle, and any proper nouns in the title or subtite. 
  • Write a description of form.
    • e.g. [Audio podcast]
  • Write the direct URL. 

  

Basic Template

Speaker, S. (date). Title of podcast [Description of form]. Retrieved from www.direct-

url.com

Example

Enigk, E. (2012, November 8). Writing for dyslexic readers [Audio podcast]. Retrieved

from http://grammar.quickanddirtytips.com/writing-for-the-visually-impaired.aspx

Social Media

  • Online posts from social media such as Facebook and Twitter are generally not considered to be scholarly in nature.
  • If you are using social media as a source, you need to provide enough information for your reader to be able to access the information. 

Twitter and Facebook Posts 

  • When you create a reference entry for a Facebook or Twitter post, provide the name of the page, the content, or part of the post (up to the first 40 words) as the title. 
  • Do not italicize the titles of status updates, tweets, pages, or photographs; do italicize the titles of items that stand alone, such as videos and photo albums. If the title contains no words, provide a description of the item in square brackets. 
  • If you paraphrase or quote specific, retrievable information from social media, provide an in-text citation and a reference entry. 

Twitter, Individual or Group Author

Basic Template 

Username or Group Name. (Year, Month Day). Post title [Page type]. Retrieved from

http://www.twitter.com/specificpageURL 

 

Twitter Example for Individual Author 

Gates, B. [BillGates]. (2015, October 15). Is it really possible to achieve the global goals?

@shepleygreen argues yes--but with a big if:http://www.ted.com/talks/michael_green

_how_we_can_make_the_world_a_better_place_by_2030?linkId=17951641

[Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/BillGates 

 

Corresponding in-text citation: (Gates, 2015). 

 

Twitter Example for Group Author 

MacEwan University [MacEwanU]. (2015, October 19). Want to volunteer at Open House?

Sign up here #macewanu https://t.co/lkrPtmECA0 [Tweet]. Retrieved from

https://twitter.com/MacEwanU 

 

Corresponding in-text citation: (MacEwan University, 2015). 


Facebook, Individual or Group Author 

Basic Template 

Username or Group Name. (Year, Month Day). Title [Page type]. Retrieved from

http://www.facebook.com/specificpageURL 

 

Facebook Example for Individual Author 

Zuckerberg, M. (2015, October 8). Today we're launching a test of reactions--a more

expressive like button. The like button has been a part of Facebook for a long time.

Billions of likes are made every day, and liking things is a simple way to [Facebook

status update]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/zuck?fref=ts

 

Corresponding in-text citation: (Zuckerberg, 2015). 

 

Facebook Example for Group Author 

MacEwan University. (2015, October 15). A model of the proposed design for City Centre

Campus in 1990 [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from

https://www.facebook.com/MacEwanUniversity

 

Corresponding in-text citation: (MacEwan University, 2015). 


Inaccessible Content 

  • If you paraphrase or quote specific information from social media but your reader will not be able to access the content (e.g., because of friends-only privacy settings), cite the content as a personal communication. 
  • It is appopriate to include a personal communication citation when there is no direct, reliable path to retrieve the source. In this case, a reference entry is not necessary. 

Example 

Sir Ken Robinson (personal communication, September 20, 2015) stated that the way children are tested in North America is limitied and inefficient. 

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